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  1. Sacroiliitis is commonly seen in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Sacroiliitis is characterized by the inflammation of the sacroiliac (SI) joints (+/− adjac...

    Authors: Racha Chamlati, Bairbre Connolly, Ronald Laxer, Jennifer Stimec, Jyoti Panwar, Shirley Tse, Prakash Muthusami, Joao Amaral, Michael Temple and Dimitri A. Parra

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:52

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Recurrent pericarditis (RP) is a complication (15–30%) of acute pericarditis with an unknown etiology. Treatment regimen consists of a combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and colchici...

    Authors: Sara Signa, Matteo D’Alessandro, Rita Consolini, Angela Miniaci, Marta Bustaffa, Chiara Longo, Maria A. Tosca, Martina Bizzi, Roberta Caorsi, Leonardo Oliveira Mendonça, Andrea Pession, Angelo Ravelli and Marco Gattorno

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:51

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a major source of morbidity and disability. There is a lack of global comparable data on the burden of MSK conditions in children and young people. Our aim was to estimate ...

    Authors: Mona Dave, Judith Rankin, Mark Pearce and Helen E. Foster

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:49

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, and is steadily increasing in prevalence in East Asia. KD is often complicated by coronary artery damage, including dilatation ...

    Authors: Jinxin Wang, Huiqiao Chen, Hongying Shi, Xuting Zhang, Yiping Shao, Biyao Hang, Zhipeng Xu, Xing Rong, Maoping Chu and Huixian Qiu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:48

    Content type: Research article

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  5. To initiate the development of a machine learning algorithm capable of comparing segments of pre and post pamidronate whole body MRI scans to assess treatment response and to compare the results of this algori...

    Authors: Chandrika S. Bhat, Mark Chopra, Savvas Andronikou, Suvadip Paul, Zach Wener-Fligner, Anna Merkoulovitch, Izidora Holjar-Erlic, Flavia Menegotto, Ewan Simpson, David Grier and Athimalaipet V. Ramanan

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:47

    Content type: Research article

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  6. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 appear to oppose each other during the process of bone formation, whereas few studies exist on the interaction between CNP ...

    Authors: Wei Xia Chen, Hui Hui Liu, Rui Xue Li, Goshgar Mammadov, Jing Jing Wang, Fei Fei Liu, Sama Samadli, Yang Fang Wu, Dong Dong Zhang, Huang Huang Luo and Peng Hu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:46

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Juvenile Sjögren’s Syndrome (jSS) is a rare phenomenon that may appear as primary jSS or associated with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and other autoimmune diseases as secondary jSS. With currently no...

    Authors: Manuela Krumrey-Langkammerer and Johannes-Peter Haas

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:44

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Many autoimmune diseases share common pathogenic mechanisms, cytokine pathways and systemic inflammatory cascades; however, large studies quantifying the co-existence of autoimmune diseases in patients with ju...

    Authors: Teresa A. Simon, Gowri Priya Harikrishnan, Hugh Kawabata, Sanket Singhal, Hermine I. Brunner and Daniel J. Lovell

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:43

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Arthritis is often an underestimated extraintestinal manifestation in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including sacroiliitis, whose early signs are well detectable at magnetic resonance imaging (MR...

    Authors: Teresa Giani, Azzurra Bernardini, Massimo Basile, Marco Di Maurizo, Anna Perrone, Sara Renzo, Viola Filistrucchi, Rolando Cimaz and Paolo Lionetti

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:42

    Content type: Research article

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  10. The reporting quality of physical activity (PA) programs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remains unknown. This study aimed to assess and compare...

    Authors: Teresa-Rose Kattackal, Sabrina Cavallo, Lucie Brosseau, Aditi Sivakumar, Michael J. Del Bel, Michelle Dorion, Erin Ueffing and Karine Toupin-April

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:41

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis of childhood. It has a characteristic rash described as palpable purpura that most frequently affects the distal lower extremities and buttocks. HSP...

    Authors: Christopher Zheng, Julie Childers, Egla Rabinovich and Kristina Nazareth-Pidgeon

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:40

    Content type: Case Report

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  12. Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a rare disease in pediatrics, and little attention has been paid to the clinical feature in these patients. To date, there are few cases concern about neurological and nephrological di...

    Authors: Jingya Zhao, Qin Chen, Yunyun Zhu, Meng Zhao, Jun Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang and Xiaoting Gong

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:39

    Content type: Case Report

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  13. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has many clinical features overlapping with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), which is caused by mutations in MEFV gene. And FMF patients were easily misdiagnosed a...

    Authors: Linqing Zhong, Wei Wang, Ji Li, Mingsheng Ma, Lijuan Gou, Changyan Wang, Zhongxun Yu, Tiannan Zhang, Yanqing Dong, Qijiao Wei and Hongmei Song

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:38

    Content type: Research article

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  14. STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is a type 1 interferonopathy manifesting as a pulmonary and vascular syndrome resulting from gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173, the gene encoding STI...

    Authors: S. L. N. Clarke, L. Robertson, G. I. Rice, L. Seabra, T. N. Hilliard, Y. J. Crow and A. V. Ramanan

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:37

    Content type: Case Report

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  15. In Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (cSLE), poor medication adherence rates are very high. Interventions targeting this problem in cSLE are limited thus effective interventions are needed. The obje...

    Authors: Onengiya Harry, Lori E. Crosby, Constance Mara, Tracy V. Ting, Jennifer L. Huggins and Avani C. Modi

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:36

    Content type: Research article

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  16. On March 11th, 2020 the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. The infection, transmitted by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), was first discovered in December 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei P...

    Authors: Francesco Licciardi, Teresa Giani, Letizia Baldini, Ennio Giulio Favalli, Roberto Caporali and Rolando Cimaz

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:35

    Content type: Review

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  17. In 2018, an international Task Force formulated recommendations for treating Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to target. The Task Force has not yet resolved three issues. The first issue is the lack of a si...

    Authors: Casper G. Schoemaker, Joost F. Swart and Nico M. Wulffraat

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:34

    Content type: Commentary

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  18. Having Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has widespread implications for a person’s life. Patients have to deal with recurring arthritis, characterized by pain often accompanied by a loss of energy. Since JI...

    Authors: E. Charlotte van Gulik, Floris Verkuil, Anouk M. Barendregt, Dieneke Schonenberg-Meinema, Amara Nassar-Sheikh Rashid, Taco W. Kuijpers, J. Merlijn van den Berg and Jan L. Hoving

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:33

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common periodic fever syndrome in children. There is considerable heterogeneity in management strategies and...

    Authors: Gil Amarilyo, Deborah Rothman, Kalpana Manthiram, Kathryn M. Edwards, Suzanne C. Li, Gary S. Marshall, Cagri Yildirim-Toruner, Kathleen Haines, Polly J. Ferguson, Geraldina Lionetti, Julie Cherian, Yongdong Zhao, Patricia DeLaMora, Grant Syverson, Simona Nativ, Marinka Twilt…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:31

    Content type: Research article

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  20. To assess EDI-OCT (enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography) of choroid for inflammatory signs in children with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and adenosine deaminase-2 deficiency (DADA-2).

    Authors: Ata BAYTAROĞLU, Sibel KADAYIFÇILAR, Abdullah AĞIN, Özge DELİKTAŞ, Selcan DEMİR, Yelda BİLGİNER, Jale KARAKAYA, Seza ÖZEN and Bora ELDEM

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:29

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Only a small percentage of pediatric chest pain is of cardiac origin and the most common detected cause is musculoskeletal. Among musculoskeletal causes, acute chest pain is better described, with the causes o...

    Authors: Basak Mansiz-Kaplan, F. Figen Ayhan, Mihriban Cagli, Fatih Atik and İbrahim Ece

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:28

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Transition from pediatric to adult care is a vulnerable time for youth with chronic diseases. In youth with rheumatic disease, studies show high rates of loss to follow up and increased disease activity. Howev...

    Authors: Paul T. Jensen, Keumseok Koh, Rebecca E. Cash, Stacy P. Ardoin and Ayaz Hyder

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:27

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis (JIA-U) is a serious condition associated with the risk of blindness. However, pediatric rheumatologists rarely encounter cases of blindness, because most patie...

    Authors: Susumu Yamazaki, Asami Shimbo, Yuko Akutsu, Hiroshi Takase, Tomohiro Morio and Masaaki Mori

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:26

    Content type: Case Report

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  24. Children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), the most common inflammatory myopathy of childhood, may be at increased risk of premature atherosclerosis given a host of traditional and non-traditional risk fact...

    Authors: Dawn M. Wahezi, Emily J. Liebling, Jaeun Choi, Marija Dionizovik-Dimanovski, Qi Gao and Jillian Parekh

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:25

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (CaN-NFAT) signaling pathway had been found to be associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) susceptibility and coronary artery aneurysm formation as a contri...

    Authors: Yameng Sun, Jingjing Liu, Zhimin Geng, Yijing Tao, Fenglei Zheng, Ying Wang, Songling Fu, Wei Wang, Chunhong Xie, Yiying Zhang and Fangqi Gong

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:23

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Early diagnosis and treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is essential to optimize outcomes. Wait times (WTs) to consultation with a pediatric rheumatologist consultation is a Canadian quality measu...

    Authors: Claire E. H. Barber, Cheryl Barnabe, Susanne Benseler, Ricky Chin, Nicole Johnson, Nadia Luca, Paivi Miettunen, Marinka Twilt, Dwaraka Veeramreddy, Natalie J. Shiff and Heinrike Schmeling

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:22

    Content type: Research article

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  27. JIA studies demonstrate that there is a “window of opportunity” early in the disease course during which appropriate management improves outcomes. No data is available regarding patients’ pathway, before first...

    Authors: Manjari Agarwal, Caroline Freychet, Sumidha Jain, Abhay Shivpuri, Anju Singh, Veronique Dinand and Sujata Sawhney

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:21

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Osteoporosis incidence in children is increasing due to the increased survival rate of patients suffering from chronic diseases and the increased use of drugs that can damage bones.

    Authors: Rocío Galindo-Zavala, Rosa Bou-Torrent, Berta Magallares-López, Concepción Mir-Perelló, Natalia Palmou-Fontana, Belén Sevilla-Pérez, Marta Medrano-San Ildefonso, Mª. Isabel González-Fernández, Almudena Román-Pascual, Paula Alcañiz-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Nieto-Gonzalez, Mireia López-Corbeto and Jenaro Graña-Gil

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:20

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs with immunosuppressive effects, may be at increased risk of vaccine-preventable infecti...

    Authors: Hermine I. Brunner, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Gabriel Vega Cornejo, Rik Joos, Elisabeth Gervais, Rolando Cimaz, Inmaculada Calvo Penadés, Rubén Cuttica, Thomas Lutz, Pierre Quartier, Yash Gandhi, Marleen Nys, Robert Wong, Alberto Martini, Daniel J. Lovell and Nicolino Ruperto

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:19

    Content type: Short Report

    Published on:

  30. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the colour representation of the graph is not correct in Figure 6 legend.

    Authors: Wan-Fang Lee, Chao-Yi Wu, Huang-Yu Yang, Wen-I Lee, Li-Chen Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou and Jing-Long Huang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:18

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:69

  31. Rare autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) including Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndrome (CAPS), Tumor Necrosis Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) and Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency Syndrome (MKD)/ Hype...

    Authors: Sandra Hansmann, Elke Lainka, Gerd Horneff, Dirk Holzinger, Nikolaus Rieber, Annette F. Jansson, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Gabi Erbis, Martina Prelog, Juergen Brunner, Susanne M. Benseler and Jasmin B. Kuemmerle-Deschner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:17

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the corresponding author’s given name is spelled incorrectly. The given name, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Mark Connelly and Jennifer E. Weiss

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:16

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:72

  33. Neurological involvement has been reported in up to 80% of adults with Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) with psychiatric abnormalities including anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction being common. Psy...

    Authors: Erin K. Hammett, Cristina Fernandez-Carbonell, Courtney Crayne, Alexis Boneparth, Randy Q. Cron and Suhas M. Radhakrishna

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:15

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  34. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the author Joan Calzada should not have been included to the team of authors. The authors’ team, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Ivan Foeldvari, Jens Klotsche, Gabriele Simonini, Clive Edelsten, Sheila T. Angeles-Han, Regitze Bangsgaard, Joke de Boer, Gabriele Brumm, Rosa Bou Torrent, Tamas Constantin, Cinzia DeLibero, Jesus Diaz, Valeria Maria Gerloni, Margarida Guedes, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Kaisu Kotaniemi…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:14

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:66

  35. Treatment of rheumatic diseases in children often includes long-term needle injections, which represent a risk for refusing medication based on potential needle-fear. How nurses manage children’s fear and pain...

    Authors: Kari Sørensen, Helge Skirbekk, Gunnvald Kvarstein and Hilde Wøien

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Methotrexate (MTX) therapy has proven to be a successful and safe treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Despite the high efficacy rates of MTX, treatment outcomes are often complicated by burdenso...

    Authors: Rosanne M. Smits, Dieuwke S. Veldhuijzen, Henriet van Middendorp, Petra C. E. Hissink Muller, Wineke Armbrust, Elizabeth Legger, Nico M. Wulffraat and Andrea W. M. Evers

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:12

    Content type: Hypothesis

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  37. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the authors’ first names and last names are presented in wrong order. The presentation of names, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Julia Nentwich, Katharina Ruf, Hermann Girschick, Annette Holl-Wieden, Henner Morbach, Helge Hebestreit and Christine Hofmann

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:11

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:45

  38. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can cause osseous deformity in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and may impair mandibular growth. This study aimed to evaluate whether facial asymmetry determined clinicall...

    Authors: Joëlle M. Bernini, Christian J. Kellenberger, Martina Eichenberger, Theodore Eliades, Spyridon N. Papageorgiou and Raphael Patcas

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:10

    Content type: Research article

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  39. In order to provide juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with better pre-conceptional and prenatal counselling, we investigated the obstetrical and neonatal outcomes among women with Asian descent.

    Authors: Shang Jun Zhang-Jian, Huang-Yu Yang, Meng-Jun Chiu, I-Jun Chou, Chang-Fu Kuo, Jing-Long Huang, Kuo-Wei Yeh and Chao-Yi Wu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  40. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the corresponding author’s given name is spelled incorrectly.

    Authors: Jennifer E. Weiss, Kenneth N. Schikler, Alexis D. Boneparth and Mark Connelly

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:8

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:51

  41. Serum phagocyte-derived alarmins S100A8/9 and S100A12 are considered useful for the assessment of inflammatory diseases. Our study evaluated the use of S100 proteins in a pediatric clinical setting for estimat...

    Authors: Najla Aljaberi, Elena Tronconi, Grant Schulert, Alexei A. Grom, Daniel J. Lovell, Jennifer L. Huggins, Michael Henrickson and Hermine I. Brunner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:7

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Axial SpA and Enthesitis related arthritis (ERA) patients show strong HLA-B27 association, gut dysbiosis, high toll like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 expression on monocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ...

    Authors: Shruti Bhattacharya, Ramnath Misra and Amita Aggarwal

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:6

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  43. Global disease activity scores (gVAS) capture patient or family (PF) and physician (MD) assessments of disease. This study sought to measure discordance between PF and MD global activity scores in juvenile der...

    Authors: Heather Tory, David Zurakowski and Susan Kim

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:5

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  44. Studies evaluating treatment responses for chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) are lacking. We aimed to measure and compare response rates of medical treatments, time to response of medical treatments amo...

    Authors: Austin Gaal, Matthew L. Basiaga, Yongdong Zhao and Mark Egbert

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:4

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  45. The primary caregiver is an important person in the life of patients with JIA. Their reactions depend on social, emotional and economic factors that affect the therapeutic alliance. Some generic instruments ha...

    Authors: Marcia Daniela Torres-Made, Ingris Peláez-Ballestas, Fernando García-Rodríguez, Ana Victoria Villarreal-Treviño, Brenda de Jesús Fortuna-Reyna, Manuel Enrique de la O-Cavazos and Nadina Eugenia Rubio-Pérez

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:3

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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