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  1. Acquired complement deficiency can occur in the setting of autoimmune syndromes, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with very low or, occasionally, undetectable C3 levels. Based on inherited complemen...

    Authors: Taha Al-Shaikhly, Kristen Hayward, Matthew L. Basiaga and Eric J. Allenspach

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:74

    Content type: Research article

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  2. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) has been utilized to assess Sjögren syndrome-related systemic involvement in adult patients. To date, however, th...

    Authors: Naomi Iwata, Minako Tomiita, Ichiro Kobayashi, Yusaburo Inoue, Yukiko Nonaka, Nami Okamoto, Hiroaki Umebayashi, Ryoki Hara, Yasuhiko Ito, Yasunori Sato and Masaaki Mori

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:73

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Myhre syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by gain of function mutations in the SMAD Family Member 4 (SMAD4) gene, resulting in progressive, proliferative skin and organ fibrosis. Skin thickening and joint contr...

    Authors: Barbara Jensen, Rebecca James, Ying Hong, Ebun Omoyinmi, Clarissa Pilkington, Neil J. Sebire, Kevin J. Howell, Paul A. Brogan and Despina Eleftheriou

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:72

    Content type: Case Report

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  4. There is a lack of awareness of paediatric rheumatic diseases (PRDs), among the public, and certain groups of healthcare professionals (HCPs), including general practitioners. To help improve international awa...

    Authors: Eve M. D. Smith, Sammy Ainsworth, Michael W. Beresford, Veerle Buys, Wendy Costello, Yona Egert, Helen E. Foster, Lovro Lamot, Berent J. Prakken, Christiaan Scott and Simon R. Stones

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:71

    Content type: Commentary

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  5. Juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) represents a group of inflammatory arthritides with several distinctive features (enthesitis, involvement of spine and sacroiliac joint, HLA-B27 association and development of...

    Authors: Achille Marino, Pamela F. Weiss, Timothy G. Brandon and Melissa A. Lerman

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:70

    Content type: Short Report

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  6. A spectrum of rare noninflammatory disorders may present with arthropathy that arises from bony dysplasia, a thickened synovium, and noninflammatory effusion, leading to a constellation of clinical features th...

    Authors: Basil M. Fathalla, Elham Ahmed Elgabaly and Ahmad Abou Tayoun

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:69

    Content type: Case Report

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  7. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis and involvement is commonly seen in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Therapy includes conservative measures, but also includes intraarticular corticosteroid injectio...

    Authors: Michael Lypka, Karina Shah and Jordan Jones

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:68

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Deficiency of the natural antagonist of interleukin-1 was first described in 2009 and so far 20 patients has been reported. In Brazil just two cases have been reported both carrying the same homozygous 15 bp d...

    Authors: Leonardo Oliveira Mendonça, Alice Grossi, Francesco Caroli, Robson Aguiar de Oliveira, Jorge Kalil, Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro, Alessandra Pontillo, Isabella Ceccherini, Myrthes Anna Maragna Toledo Barros and Marco Gattorno

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:67

    Content type: Review

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  9. The purpose of this study was to identify reproductive health knowledge gaps and topics that concern adolescent and young adult (AYA) women with pediatric rheumatic diseases and their parents.

    Authors: Kristine Carandang, Veronica Mruk, Stacy P. Ardoin, Brittany Huynh, Megan E. B. Clowse, Elise D. Berlan and Cuoghi Edens

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:66

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Methotrexate is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug recommended in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It can be administered orally or subcutaneously, the latter method is ...

    Authors: Justyna Roszkiewicz, Zbigniew Swacha and Elżbieta Smolewska

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:64

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) or necrotizing histiocytic lymphadenitis, was described separately by both Kikuchi and Fujimoto in Japan in the early 1970’s. Despite its rarity in the pediatric population, it i...

    Authors: Ashfaque Quadir, Ken Peacock, Peter Hsu, Davinder Singh-Grewal and Stephen Alexander

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:62

    Content type: Case Report

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  12. For reasons poorly understood, and despite the availability of biological medications blocking IL-1 and IL-6 that have markedly improved overall disease control, children with Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arth...

    Authors: Scott W. Canna, Grant S. Schulert, Adriana de Jesus, Alex Pickering, Hermine Brunner, Massimo Gadina, Stewart Levine, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Jonathan Boutelle, Rashmi Sinha, Fabrizio DeBenedetti and Alexei Grom

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18(Suppl 1):53

    Content type: Meeting report

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    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  13. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limiting systemic vasculitis that predominately affects children. Neurological involvement is a known complication of KD, however, its association with KD severity remai...

    Authors: Xiaoliang Liu, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua, Mei Wu, Lei Liu, Shuran Shao and Chuan Wang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:61

    Content type: Research article

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  14. There is increasing concern about the emerging global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) burden. The focus has mainly been on NCDs in adults but it is important that MSK morbidity in both children and adults is ...

    Authors: Helen E. Foster, Christiaan Scott, Carl J. Tiderius and Matthew B. Dobbs

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:60

    Content type: Commentary

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  15. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood that often persists into adulthood and can result in significant long-term morbidity. As a long lasting chronic infla...

    Authors: Inmaculada Concepción Aranda-Valera, Iván Arias de la Rosa, Rosa Roldán-Molina, María del Carmen Ábalos-Aguilera, Carmen Torres-Granados, Alejandra Patiño-Trives, María Luque-Tevar, Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, Rocío Guzmán-Ruiz, María del Mar Malagón, Alejandro Escudero-Contreras, Chary López-Pedrera, Eduardo Collantes-Estévez and Nuria Barbarroja

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:59

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with various clinical manifestations involving multiple organ systems. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE have been associated with increased mor...

    Authors: Alexandra Theisen, Paroma Bose, Christina Knight and Melissa Oliver

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:58

    Content type: Case Report

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  17. Inflammatory arthritis in children with Down syndrome (DS) was first described in 1984 and is now termed Down syndrome-associated arthritis (DA). Studies have shown that DA is under-recognized with a 19-month ...

    Authors: Anna Nicek, Nasreen Talib, Daniel Lovell, Chelsey Smith, Mara L. Becker and Jordan T. Jones

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:57

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Hyperferritinemic syndromes are systemic inflammatory disorders characterized by a dysfunctional immune response, which leads to excessive activation of the monocyte-macrophage system with hypercytokinemia and...

    Authors: Riccardo Papa, Valentina Natoli, Roberta Caorsi, Francesca Minoia, Marco Gattorno and Angelo Ravelli

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:56

    Content type: Case Report

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  19. FBLIM1 gene has been recently demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of bone sterile inflammation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of FBLIM1 gene variants in a cohort of 80 Italian pat...

    Authors: Adamo Pio d’Adamo, Anna Monica Bianco, Giovanna Ferrara, Martina La Bianca, Antonella Insalaco, Alberto Tommasini, Manuela Pardeo, Marco Cattalini, Francesco La Torre, Martina Finetti, Clotilde Alizzi, Gabriele Simonini, Virginia Messia, Serena Pastore, Rolando Cimaz, Marco Gattorno…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:55

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Sacroiliitis is commonly seen in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Sacroiliitis is characterized by the inflammation of the sacroiliac (SI) joints (+/− adjac...

    Authors: Racha Chamlati, Bairbre Connolly, Ronald Laxer, Jennifer Stimec, Jyoti Panwar, Shirley Tse, Prakash Muthusami, Joao Amaral, Michael Temple and Dimitri A. Parra

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:52

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Recurrent pericarditis (RP) is a complication (15–30%) of acute pericarditis with an unknown etiology. Treatment regimen consists of a combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and colchici...

    Authors: Sara Signa, Matteo D’Alessandro, Rita Consolini, Angela Miniaci, Marta Bustaffa, Chiara Longo, Maria A. Tosca, Martina Bizzi, Roberta Caorsi, Leonardo Oliveira Mendonça, Andrea Pession, Angelo Ravelli and Marco Gattorno

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:51

    Content type: Case Report

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  22. Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a major source of morbidity and disability. There is a lack of global comparable data on the burden of MSK conditions in children and young people. Our aim was to estimate ...

    Authors: Mona Dave, Judith Rankin, Mark Pearce and Helen E. Foster

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:49

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, and is steadily increasing in prevalence in East Asia. KD is often complicated by coronary artery damage, including dilatation ...

    Authors: Jinxin Wang, Huiqiao Chen, Hongying Shi, Xuting Zhang, Yiping Shao, Biyao Hang, Zhipeng Xu, Xing Rong, Maoping Chu and Huixian Qiu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:48

    Content type: Research article

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  24. To initiate the development of a machine learning algorithm capable of comparing segments of pre and post pamidronate whole body MRI scans to assess treatment response and to compare the results of this algori...

    Authors: Chandrika S. Bhat, Mark Chopra, Savvas Andronikou, Suvadip Paul, Zach Wener-Fligner, Anna Merkoulovitch, Izidora Holjar-Erlic, Flavia Menegotto, Ewan Simpson, David Grier and Athimalaipet V. Ramanan

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:47

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 appear to oppose each other during the process of bone formation, whereas few studies exist on the interaction between CNP ...

    Authors: Wei Xia Chen, Hui Hui Liu, Rui Xue Li, Goshgar Mammadov, Jing Jing Wang, Fei Fei Liu, Sama Samadli, Yang Fang Wu, Dong Dong Zhang, Huang Huang Luo and Peng Hu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:46

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Juvenile Sjögren’s Syndrome (jSS) is a rare phenomenon that may appear as primary jSS or associated with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and other autoimmune diseases as secondary jSS. With currently no...

    Authors: Manuela Krumrey-Langkammerer and Johannes-Peter Haas

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:44

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Many autoimmune diseases share common pathogenic mechanisms, cytokine pathways and systemic inflammatory cascades; however, large studies quantifying the co-existence of autoimmune diseases in patients with ju...

    Authors: Teresa A. Simon, Gowri Priya Harikrishnan, Hugh Kawabata, Sanket Singhal, Hermine I. Brunner and Daniel J. Lovell

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:43

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Arthritis is often an underestimated extraintestinal manifestation in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including sacroiliitis, whose early signs are well detectable at magnetic resonance imaging (MR...

    Authors: Teresa Giani, Azzurra Bernardini, Massimo Basile, Marco Di Maurizo, Anna Perrone, Sara Renzo, Viola Filistrucchi, Rolando Cimaz and Paolo Lionetti

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:42

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The reporting quality of physical activity (PA) programs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remains unknown. This study aimed to assess and compare...

    Authors: Teresa-Rose Kattackal, Sabrina Cavallo, Lucie Brosseau, Aditi Sivakumar, Michael J. Del Bel, Michelle Dorion, Erin Ueffing and Karine Toupin-April

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:41

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis of childhood. It has a characteristic rash described as palpable purpura that most frequently affects the distal lower extremities and buttocks. HSP...

    Authors: Christopher Zheng, Julie Childers, Egla Rabinovich and Kristina Nazareth-Pidgeon

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:40

    Content type: Case Report

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  31. Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a rare disease in pediatrics, and little attention has been paid to the clinical feature in these patients. To date, there are few cases concern about neurological and nephrological di...

    Authors: Jingya Zhao, Qin Chen, Yunyun Zhu, Meng Zhao, Jun Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang and Xiaoting Gong

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:39

    Content type: Case Report

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  32. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has many clinical features overlapping with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), which is caused by mutations in MEFV gene. And FMF patients were easily misdiagnosed a...

    Authors: Linqing Zhong, Wei Wang, Ji Li, Mingsheng Ma, Lijuan Gou, Changyan Wang, Zhongxun Yu, Tiannan Zhang, Yanqing Dong, Qijiao Wei and Hongmei Song

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:38

    Content type: Research article

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  33. STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is a type 1 interferonopathy manifesting as a pulmonary and vascular syndrome resulting from gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173, the gene encoding STI...

    Authors: S. L. N. Clarke, L. Robertson, G. I. Rice, L. Seabra, T. N. Hilliard, Y. J. Crow and A. V. Ramanan

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:37

    Content type: Case Report

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  34. In Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (cSLE), poor medication adherence rates are very high. Interventions targeting this problem in cSLE are limited thus effective interventions are needed. The obje...

    Authors: Onengiya Harry, Lori E. Crosby, Constance Mara, Tracy V. Ting, Jennifer L. Huggins and Avani C. Modi

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:36

    Content type: Research article

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  35. On March 11th, 2020 the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. The infection, transmitted by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), was first discovered in December 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei P...

    Authors: Francesco Licciardi, Teresa Giani, Letizia Baldini, Ennio Giulio Favalli, Roberto Caporali and Rolando Cimaz

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:35

    Content type: Review

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  36. In 2018, an international Task Force formulated recommendations for treating Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to target. The Task Force has not yet resolved three issues. The first issue is the lack of a si...

    Authors: Casper G. Schoemaker, Joost F. Swart and Nico M. Wulffraat

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:34

    Content type: Commentary

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  37. Having Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has widespread implications for a person’s life. Patients have to deal with recurring arthritis, characterized by pain often accompanied by a loss of energy. Since JI...

    Authors: E. Charlotte van Gulik, Floris Verkuil, Anouk M. Barendregt, Dieneke Schonenberg-Meinema, Amara Nassar-Sheikh Rashid, Taco W. Kuijpers, J. Merlijn van den Berg and Jan L. Hoving

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:33

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common periodic fever syndrome in children. There is considerable heterogeneity in management strategies and...

    Authors: Gil Amarilyo, Deborah Rothman, Kalpana Manthiram, Kathryn M. Edwards, Suzanne C. Li, Gary S. Marshall, Cagri Yildirim-Toruner, Kathleen Haines, Polly J. Ferguson, Geraldina Lionetti, Julie Cherian, Yongdong Zhao, Patricia DeLaMora, Grant Syverson, Simona Nativ, Marinka Twilt…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:31

    Content type: Research article

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  39. To assess EDI-OCT (enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography) of choroid for inflammatory signs in children with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and adenosine deaminase-2 deficiency (DADA-2).

    Authors: Ata BAYTAROĞLU, Sibel KADAYIFÇILAR, Abdullah AĞIN, Özge DELİKTAŞ, Selcan DEMİR, Yelda BİLGİNER, Jale KARAKAYA, Seza ÖZEN and Bora ELDEM

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:29

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Only a small percentage of pediatric chest pain is of cardiac origin and the most common detected cause is musculoskeletal. Among musculoskeletal causes, acute chest pain is better described, with the causes o...

    Authors: Basak Mansiz-Kaplan, F. Figen Ayhan, Mihriban Cagli, Fatih Atik and İbrahim Ece

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:28

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Transition from pediatric to adult care is a vulnerable time for youth with chronic diseases. In youth with rheumatic disease, studies show high rates of loss to follow up and increased disease activity. Howev...

    Authors: Paul T. Jensen, Keumseok Koh, Rebecca E. Cash, Stacy P. Ardoin and Ayaz Hyder

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:27

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis (JIA-U) is a serious condition associated with the risk of blindness. However, pediatric rheumatologists rarely encounter cases of blindness, because most patie...

    Authors: Susumu Yamazaki, Asami Shimbo, Yuko Akutsu, Hiroshi Takase, Tomohiro Morio and Masaaki Mori

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:26

    Content type: Case Report

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  43. Children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), the most common inflammatory myopathy of childhood, may be at increased risk of premature atherosclerosis given a host of traditional and non-traditional risk fact...

    Authors: Dawn M. Wahezi, Emily J. Liebling, Jaeun Choi, Marija Dionizovik-Dimanovski, Qi Gao and Jillian Parekh

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:25

    Content type: Research article

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