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  1. The aetiology of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is poorly understood. It has been shown that use of antibiotics is associated with JIA. However, whether the association is due to increased occurrence of i...

    Authors: Erik Kindgren and Johnny Ludvigsson

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:145

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Pleural effusion in systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) is a common symptom, and recent studies demonstrated that IL-6 has a pivotal role in its pathogenesis.

    Authors: Arianna De Matteis, Emanuela Sacco, Camilla Celani, Andrea Uva, Virginia Messia, Rebecca Nicolai, Manuela Pardeo, Fabrizio De Benedetti and Claudia Bracaglia

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:144

    Content type: Case Report

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  3. Although canakinumab has demonstrated efficacy in multiple trials in patients with periodic fever syndromes (PFS), the evidence on initiation of canakinumab among PFS patients in real world setting is not well...

    Authors: Peter Hur, Kathleen G. Lomax, Raluca Ionescu-Ittu, Ameur M. Manceur, Jipan Xie, Jordan Cammarota, Raju Gautam, Navneet Sanghera, Nina Kim and Alexei A. Grom

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:143

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Autoinflammatory diseases (AID) are rare chronic conditions with high disease burden, affecting children and adults. Clinically and genetically confirmed, AID can be effectively treated with targeted cytokine ...

    Authors: Tatjana Welzel, Anna L. Wildermuth, Norbert Deschner, Susanne M. Benseler and Jasmin B. Kuemmerle-Deschner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:142

    Content type: Research article

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  5. The ACR 1997, SLICC 2012 and EULAR/ACR 2019 classification criteria were validated based on adult patients. To date, there are no classification criteria specific for children with SLE. The aim of the study is...

    Authors: Reem Abdwani, Eiman Masroori, Eiman Abdullah, Safiya Al Abrawi and Ibrahim Al-Zakwani

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:141

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Surgeries for idiopathic uveitis and juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis in children are complex because of the high risk of inflammatory postoperative complications. There is no consensus about t...

    Authors: Julie Molimard, Christine Pajot, Priscille Olle, Alexandre Belot, Pierre Quartier, Florence Uettwiller, Chloé Couret, Valentine Coste, Camille Costet, Bahram Bodaghi, Pascal Dureau, Marion Bailhache and Pascal Pillet

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:139

    Content type: Research article

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  7. This case study documents the first familial case of Blau syndrome (BS) in Palestine characterized with mutation in CARD15/NOD2.

    Authors: Salam Iriqat, Mohammed Abu Safieh, Manuel Fatouleh and Abdulsalam Alkaiyat

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:138

    Content type: Case Report

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  8. Consensus treatment plans have been developed for induction therapy of newly diagnosed proliferative lupus nephritis (LN) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. However, patients who do not respond t...

    Authors: Mileka Gilbert, Beatrice Goilav, Joyce J. Hsu, Paul J. Nietert, Esra Meidan, Annabelle Chua, Stacy P. Ardoin, Scott E. Wenderfer, Emily von Scheven and Natasha M. Ruth

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:137

    Content type: Research article

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  9. The importance of developmentally appropriate transitional care in young people with juvenile-onset rheumatic and musculoskeletal disease is well recognised. The Paediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS)...

    Authors: Janet E. McDonagh, Rachel Tattersall, Jacqui Clinch, Joanne Swan, Helen E. Foster and Liza McCann

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:136

    Content type: Review

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  10. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common paediatric rheumatological disorder and is classified by subtype according to International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria. Depending on...

    Authors: Lina N. Zaripova, Angela Midgley, Stephen E. Christmas, Michael W. Beresford, Eileen M. Baildam and Rachel A. Oldershaw

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:135

    Content type: Review

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  11. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is the most common pediatric rheumatologic disorder with unknown etiology. Currently, no population-based data are available regarding the distribution of categories and fr...

    Authors: Sezgin Sahin, Ceyhun Acari, Hafize Emine Sonmez, Fatma Zehra Kilic, Erdal Sag, Hatice Adiguzel Dundar, Amra Adrovic, Selcan Demir, Kenan Barut, Yelda Bilginer, Betul Sozeri, Erbil Unsal, Seza Ozen and Ozgur Kasapcopur

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:134

    Content type: Research article

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  12. We aimed to characterize etanercept (ETN) use in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients enrolled in the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry.

    Authors: Timothy Beukelman, Aimee Lougee, Roland A. Matsouaka, David Collier, Dax G. Rumsey, Jennifer Schenfeld, Scott Stryker, Marinka Twilt and Yukiko Kimura

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:131

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis constitutes a significant cause of disability and quality of life impairment in pediatric and adult patients. The aim of this study was to ascertain clinical remission (CR) and su...

    Authors: Mireia Castillo-Vilella, Nuria Giménez, Jose Luis Tandaipan, Salvador Quintana and Consuelo Modesto

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:130

    Content type: Research article

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  14. The curriculum for professionals working in paediatric rheumatology should include pain but it is unclear to what extent this currently occurs. The aim of this study was to identify pain-related curriculum con...

    Authors: Rebecca Rachael Lee, Janet E. McDonagh, Mark Connelly, Sarah Peters and Lis Cordingley

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:129

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Juvenile-onset Fibromyalgia (JFM) is a chronic pain condition characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep difficulties, mood concerns, and other associated symptoms. Although diagnosed in ...

    Authors: Morgan Daffin, Mary K. Lynch-Milder, Robert C. Gibler, Caitlin Murray, Carly M. Green and Susmita Kashikar-Zuck

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:128

    Content type: Research article

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  16. High-intensity glucocorticoid regimens are commonly used to induce and maintain remission in Juvenile Dermatomyositis but are associated with several adverse side-effects. Evidence-based treatment guidelines f...

    Authors: Amir B. Orandi, Lampros Fotis, Jamie Lai, Hallie Morris, Andrew J. White, Anthony R. French and Kevin W. Baszis

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:127

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Mutations along PSTPIP1 gene are associated to two specific conditions, PAPA syndrome and PAMI syndrome, both autoinflammatory disorders associated to disturbances in cytoskeleton formation. Immunological aspe...

    Authors: Leonardo Oliveira Mendonça, Maria Teresa Terreri, Fabiane Mitie Osaku, Samar Freschi Barros, Karen Francine Köhler, Alex Isidoro Prado, Myrthes Toledo Barros, Jorge Kalil and Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:126

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Based on the recently developed ChRonic nonbacterial Osteomyelitis MRI Scoring tool (CROMRIS), we developed a radiological activity index (RAI-CROMRIS) to obtain a quantification of the overall bone involvemen...

    Authors: Martina Capponi, Denise Pires Marafon, Flaminia Rivosecchi, Yongdong Zhao, Manuela Pardeo, Virginia Messia, Laura Tanturri de Horatio, Paolo Tomà, Fabrizio De Benedetti and Antonella Insalaco

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:123

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The impact of social determinants of health on children with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA) is poorly understood. Prompt initiation of treatment for pJIA is important to prevent disease mor...

    Authors: Nayimisha Balmuri, William Daniel Soulsby, Victoria Cooley, Linda Gerber, Erica Lawson, Susan Goodman, Karen Onel and Bella Mehta

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:122

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is an inborn error of immunity, resulting in susceptibility to weakly virulent mycobacteria and other intramacrophagic pathogens. Rheumatologic manifest...

    Authors: Niusha Sharifinejad, Seyed Alireza Mahdaviani, Mahnaz Jamee, Zahra Daneshmandi, Afshin Moniri, Majid Marjani, Payam Tabarsi, Parisa Farnia, Mahsa Rekabi, Mazdak Fallahi, Seyedeh Atefeh Hashemimoghaddam, Masoumeh Mohkam, Jacinta Bustamante, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Davood Mansouri and Ali Akbar Velayati

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:121

    Content type: Case Report

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  21. High-dose glucocorticoids (GC) remain the primary therapy to induce remission in Juvenile Dermatomyositis (JDM). Studies of the natural history of GC associated weight gain in children are very limited, especi...

    Authors: Amer Khojah, Victoria Liu, Gabrielle Morgan, Richard M. Shore and Lauren M. Pachman

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:118

    Content type: Short Report

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  22. To describe a case of pediatric sarcoidosis which initially presented as papillary conjunctivitis before manifesting as bilateral lacrimal gland swelling without other known systemic involvement.

    Authors: Margaret S. Powell, Ashley W. Cross, Jared Tallo, Edward W. Cheeseman and Mileka R. Gilbert

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:117

    Content type: Case Report

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  23. Despite being at high risk for depression, patients with childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (c-SLE) are infrequently and inconsistently screened for depression by their pediatric rheumatologists. We ...

    Authors: Evan Mulvihill, Rebecca Furru, Alana Goldstein-Leever, Kyla Driest, Stephanie Lemle, Darby MacDonald, Emily Frost and Vidya Sivaraman

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:116

    Content type: Research article

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    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:133

  24. Authors: Francesco Baldo, Michela Brena, Simone Carbogno, Francesca Minoia, Stefano Lanni, Sophie Guez, Antonella Petaccia, Carlo Agostoni, Rolando Cimaz and Giovanni Filocamo

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:115

    Content type: Correction

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    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:80

  25. Respiratory conditions are the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children with Trisomy 21 (T21). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) occurs at higher frequency in children with T21; yet, it is not wi...

    Authors: Jessica L. Bloom, Benjamin Frank, Jason P. Weinman, Csaba Galambos, Sean T. O’Leary, Deborah R. Liptzin and Robert C. Fuhlbrigge

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:114

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  26. Despite the commonality of adolescent knee pain, there are no tools to support medical doctors to correctly diagnose knee pain. This study aimed to develop and evaluate a support tool for diagnosing the most c...

    Authors: Clara Guldhammer, Sinead Holden, Marina Elmelund Sørensen, Jens Lykkegaard Olesen, Martin Bach Jensen and Michael Skovdal Rathleff

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:110

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Glucocorticoid exposure is a significant driver of morbidity in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). We determined the effect of early initiation of biologic therapy (IL-1 or IL-6 inhib...

    Authors: Rosemary G. Peterson, Rui Xiao, Hannah Katcoff, Brian T. Fisher and Pamela F. Weiss

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:109

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Immunosuppressive drugs, incomplete vaccine coverage, immune system dysregulation might be factors of a low level of anti-vaccine antibodies in JIA patients. The study aimed to evaluate vaccine coverage, post-...

    Authors: Mikhail M. Kostik, Natalia A. Lubimova, Irina V. Fridman, Olga V. Goleva and Susanna M. Kharit

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:108

    Content type: Research article

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  29. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is the mainstay of treatment for Kawasaki disease (KD). Usually, 2 g/kg of IVIG is administered over 10–24 h, depending on the institution or physician, but the asso...

    Authors: Saori Fukui, Mitsuru Seki, Takaomi Minami, Kazuhiko Kotani, Kensuke Oka, Akiko Yokomizo, Daisuke Matsubara, Tomoyuki Sato, Yasuyuki Nozaki, Mari Saito, Yutaka Kikuchi, Kenji Miyamoto, Yukifumi Monden and Takanori Yamagata

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:107

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Recognition of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) involvement in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has gained increasing attention in the past decade. The clinical assessment of mandibular range of ...

    Authors: Willemijn F. C. de Sonnaville, Caroline M. Speksnijder, Nicolaas P. A. Zuithoff, Daan R. C. Verkouteren, Nico W. Wulffraat, Michel H. Steenks and Antoine J. W. P. Rosenberg

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:106

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Chronic illness, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), appears to have an impact on the mental health of children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to explore the incidence of mental and behavi...

    Authors: Minna S. Kyllönen, Hanna Ebeling, Hannu Kautiainen, Kari Puolakka and Paula Vähäsalo

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:105

    Content type: Research article

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  32. H syndrome (HS) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by a mutation in the solute carrier family 29, member 3 (SCL29A3) gene. It has a variable clinical presentation and little phenotype-genotype correlati...

    Authors: Laura Ventura-Espejo, Inés Gracia-Darder, Silvia Escribá-Bori, Eva Regina Amador-González, Ana Martín-Santiago and Jan Ramakers

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:104

    Content type: Case Report

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  33. Dermatomyositis with positive anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (anti-MDA5) antibody has a distinct phenotype associated with small hand joint arthritis, mucocutaneous ulceration, palmar papules ...

    Authors: Tsz-Wing Yeung, Kai-Ning Cheong, Yu-Lung Lau and Kei-Chiu Niko Tse

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:103

    Content type: Case Report

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  34. The inflammatory process in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) involves both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The turnover and activity of neutrophil granulocytes may be reflected by proteins secret...

    Authors: Malin Backlund, Per Venge and Lillemor Berntson

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:102

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Most childhood-onset rheumatic diseases are chronic health conditions, which need long-term care throughout adulthood. A well-organized transition care is challenging and patient assessment of transition skill...

    Authors: Sirinthip Kittivisuit, Butsabong Lerkvaleekul, Sirisucha Soponkanaporn, Pintip Ngamjanyaporn and Soamarat Vilaiyuk

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:101

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Dermatomyositis is an inflammatory muscle disease caused by immune-mediated muscle injury, and central core disease (CCD) is a congenital myopathy associated with disturbed intracellular calcium homeostasis an...

    Authors: Min Jung Kim, Mi Hyeon Kim, Sung-Hye Park and Yeong Wook Song

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:100

    Content type: Case Report

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  37. Primary cutaneous mucinosis are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by the deposition of glycosaminoglycans in the dermis and the follicles. These diseases are rare in children therefore their diag...

    Authors: Cristina Morreale, Dario Bleidl, Angela Rita Sementa and Clara Malattia

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:99

    Content type: Case Report

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  38. Subcutaneous anakinra is an interleukin-1 inhibitor used to treat juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Recent reports suggest anakinra can be a valuable addition to the treatment of COVID-19 associated cytokine stor...

    Authors: Omkar Phadke, Kelly Rouster-Stevens, Helen Giannopoulos, Shanmuganathan Chandrakasan and Sampath Prahalad

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:98

    Content type: Short Report

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  39. Physical activity (PA) patterns in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) over time are not well described. The aim of this study was to describe associations of physical activity (PA) with disease ...

    Authors: Liane D. Heale, Kristin M. Houghton, Elham Rezaei, Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Susan M. Tupper, Nazeem Muhajarine, Susanne M. Benseler, Gilles Boire, David A. Cabral, Sarah Campillo, Gaëlle Chédeville, Anne-Laure Chetaille, Paul Dancey, Ciaran Duffy, Karen Watanabe Duffy, Janet Ellsworth…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:97

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Coronary artery lesions (CALs) are the most severe complication of Kawasaki disease (KD). Approximately 9–20% of the patients with KD develop CAL despite receiving regular treatment (intravenous immunoglobulin...

    Authors: Xuting Zhang, Yuee He, Yiping Shao, Biyao Hang, Zhipeng Xu and Maoping Chu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:96

    Content type: Research article

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