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  1. Juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (JIIMs) is a group of autoimmune disorders, including juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), juvenile polymyositis (JPM) and overlap myositis, that are characterized by pro...

    Authors: Megan Mariko Perron, Natalia Vasquez-Canizares, Gabriel Tarshish and Dawn M. Wahezi

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:92

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Fabry disease (FD) is a rare, X-linked, multisystemic lysosomal storage disorder (LSD) that results from a deficiency in the hydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (⍺-GalA). During childhood, classic FD symptomatolog...

    Authors: Luciana Paim-Marques, Amanda Virginia Cavalcante, Islane Verçosa, Paula Carneiro, Marcia Souto-Maior, Erlane Marques and Simone Appenzeller

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:91

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of disorders, including all forms of arthritis, which develops in children who are less than 16 years old. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical...

    Authors: Raed M. Alzyoud, Motasem O. Alsuweiti, Heba Q. Almaaitah, Bushra N. Aladaileh, Mohammad K. Alnoubani and Adel M. Alwahadneh

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:90

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Although, preliminary reports of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection suggest that the infection causes a less severe illness in children, there is now growing evidence of other rare or eve...

    Authors: Reza Sinaei, Sara Pezeshki, Saeedeh Parvaresh, Roya Sinaei, Reza Shiari, Mehrnoush Hassas Yeganeh, Nasrin Bazargn and Nava Gharaei

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:89

    Content type: Case Report

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  5. With the advent of innovative therapies including biologics and Janus kinase inhibitors, children with rheumatic diseases are more likely to have improved outcomes. Despite these advances, some children do not...

    Authors: Stephen C. Wong, Leah C. Medrano, Alice D. Hoftman, Olcay Y. Jones and Deborah K. McCurdy

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:87

    Content type: Case Report

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  6. Children with rheumatic diseases (cRD) receiving immunosuppressive medications (IM) are at a higher risk for acquiring potentially lethal pathogens, including Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), a fungal inf...

    Authors: Rachel A. Brown, Fatima Barbar-Smiley, Cagri Yildirim-Toruner, Monica I. Ardura, Stacy P. Ardoin and Shoghik Akoghlanian

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:84

    Content type: Case Report

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  7. Current evidence suggests that many adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) do not successfully transfer to adult care, which can result in adverse health outcomes. Although a growing number of cl...

    Authors: Lynn Spiegel, Lori Tucker, Karen Watanabe Duffy, Chitra Lalloo, Amos Hundert, Josiane Bourre-Tessier, Elizabeth Hazel, Nadia Luca, Dianne Mosher, Cynthia Nguyen, Elizabeth Stringer, Charles Victor and Jennifer Stinson

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:83

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Tenascin-C (TN-C) is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein related to tissue inflammation. Our previous retrospective study conducted in 2016 revealed that the serum tenascin-C level was higher in patients with...

    Authors: Yukako Yoshikane, Yoshiaki Okuma, Tatsuki Miyamoto, Junichi Hashimoto, Ryuji Fukazawa, Taichi Kato, Atsuhito Takeda, Kenji Suda, Takeji Matsushita, Michiaki Hiroe and Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:82

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is an anti-neutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis affecting small to medium-sized vessels and involves most commonly the kidneys and the respiratory trac...

    Authors: Rotem Semo Oz, Oluwakemi Onajin, Liora Harel, Rotem Tal, Tomas Dallos, Adena Rosenblatt, Lukas Plank and Linda Wagner-Weiner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:81

    Content type: Case Report

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  10. Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is the most severe phenotype of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) represents a heterogenous group of disorders all sharing the clinical ma...

    Authors: Francesco Baldo, Michela Brena, Simone Carbogno, Francesca Minoia, Stefani Lanni, Sophie Guez, Antonella Petaccia, Carlo Agostoni, Rolando Cimaz and Giovanni Filocamo

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:80

    Content type: Case Report

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  11. The present study focuses on the associations of streptococcal infection with the clinical phenotypes, relapse/recurrence and renal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) children.

    Authors: Guo Zhen Fan, Rui Xue Li, Qi Jiang, Man Man Niu, Zhen Qiu, Wei Xia Chen, Hui Hui Liu, Jin Wei Ruan and Peng Hu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:79

    Content type: Research article

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  12. This study aimed to assess the occurrence of coronary artery lesions (CAL) in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) according to serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.

    Authors: Hyo Soon An, Gi Beom Kim, Mi Kyoung Song, Sang Yun Lee, Hye Won Kwon, Joo Won Lee and Eun Jung Bae

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:78

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a life-long, autoinflammatory disease associated with a gain-of-function mutation in the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat family, pyrin domain con...

    Authors: Kyoko Yokoi, Sachiko Minamiguchi, Yoshitaka Honda, Mizuho Kobayashi, Satoru Kobayashi and Ryuta Nishikomori

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:77

    Content type: Case Report

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  14. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited febrile illness of unknown cause. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-resistance are related to greater risk for permanent cardiac complications. We aimed to deter...

    Authors: Yi Seul Kim, Hyun Jin Yang, Seung-Jung Kee, Insu Choi, Kisoo Ha, Katrina K Ki, In Seok Jeong and Hwa Jin Cho

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:76

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome affecting children and adolescents. In part one of this review, we discussed the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, c...

    Authors: Maya Levy Coles and Yosef Uziel

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:74

    Content type: Review

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    The Review to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:22

  16. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is a complex autoimmune disorder with multi-organ manifestations and can be associated with other rheumatic diseases including Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). Saliv...

    Authors: Joseph McDonald, Patricia Vega-Fernandez and Tracy Ting

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:73

    Content type: Research article

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  17. We examined influences of conditioned media from chondrocytes (Ch) on juvenile idiopathic arthritis synovial fibroblasts (JFLS) and potential for JFLS to undergo endochondral bone formation (EBF).

    Authors: Megan M. Simonds, Amanda R. Schlefman, Suzanne M. McCahan, Kathleen E. Sullivan, Carlos D. Rose and Anne Marie C. Brescia

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:72

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Among school-age children, the decrease of cartilage thickness (Cth) with increasing age is well known. However, the influence of body mass index (BMI), height or weight on Cth has not been revealed. Here in, ...

    Authors: Chun-Chun Gau, Tsung-Chieh Yao, Shu-Ting Gan, Syh-Jae Lin, Kuo-Wei Yeh, Li-Chen Chen, Liang- Shiou Ou, Wen-I Lee, Chao-Yi Wu and Jing-Long Huang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:71

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis with systemic signs of inflammation can be encountered in inflammatory bowel disease, Behçet’s disease (BD), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). In addition, it has been proposed ...

    Authors: Martina Girardelli, Erica Valencic, Valentina Moressa, Roberta Margagliotta, Alessandra Tesser, Serena Pastore, Ottavia Spadola, Emmanouil Athanasakis, Giovanni Maria Severini, Andrea Taddio and Alberto Tommasini

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:70

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Pediatric Rheumatology is an orphan specialty in Africa which is gradually gaining importance across the continent.

    Authors: Angela N. Migowa, Djohra Hadef, Wafa Hamdi, Oscar Mwizerwa, Madeleine Ngandeu, Yassmin Taha, Faleye Ayodele, Kate Webb and Christiaan Scott

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:69

    Content type: Commentary

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  21. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) provide valuable insight on patients’ well-being and facilitates communication between healthcare providers and their patients. The increased integration of the techno...

    Authors: Jennifer Y. Yu, Talia Goldberg, Nicholas Lao, Brian M. Feldman and Y. Ingrid Goh

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:67

    Content type: Research article

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  22. To describe the biomarkers of lipid metabolism in children and adolescents with polyarticular and systemic JIA and to relate them to diseases subtypes, diseases activity markers, and nutritional status.

    Authors: Wellington Douglas Rocha Rodrigues, Roseli Oselka Saccardo Sarni, Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Annelyse Araújo, Claudio Arnaldo Len and Maria Teresa Terreri

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:66

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of inflammatory joint disorders with a chronic-remitting disease course. Treat-to-target approaches have been proposed but monitoring disease activi...

    Authors: Margarita Ganeva, Sabrina Fuehner, Christoph Kessel, Jens Klotsche, Martina Niewerth, Kirsten Minden, Dirk Foell, Claas H. Hinze and Helmut Wittkowski

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:64

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Coccidioides immitis is a dimorphic fungus endemic to the arid climates of the Southwest United States, Mexico and parts of Central and South America. Human infection occurs through inhalation of spores with less...

    Authors: Megan Trainor, Emily Henkel, Lucia Z. Diaz and Ruy Carrasco

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:63

    Content type: Case Report

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  25. Inadequate systemic exposure to infliximab (IFX) is associated with treatment failure. This work evaluated factors associated with reduced IFX exposure in children with autoimmune disorders requiring IFX therapy.

    Authors: Ryan S. Funk, Valentina Shakhnovich, Yu Kyoung Cho, Kishore Polireddy, Taina Jausurawong, Kyle Gress and Mara L. Becker

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:62

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Despite the risk for poor outcomes and gaps in care in the transfer from pediatric to adult care, most pediatric rheumatology centers lack formal transition pathways. As a first step in designing a pathway, we...

    Authors: Jordan E. Roberts, Olha Halyabar, Carter R. Petty and Mary Beth Son

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:61

    Content type: Short Report

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  27. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) has been used worldwide in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but is beginning to play an increasing role in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The ...

    Authors: Yung-Hsien Huang, Ya-Chiao Hu, Chun-Hua Liao, Bor-Luen Chiang, Cheng-Hsun Lu, Ko-Jen Li and Yao-Hsu Yang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:60

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs have improved the prognosis for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) significantly. However, evidence for individual treatment decisions based on serum anti-TNF drug level...

    Authors: A. Nassar-Sheikh Rashid, D. Schonenberg-Meinema, S. C. Bergkamp, S. Bakhlakh, A. de Vries, T. Rispens, T. W. Kuijpers, G. Wolbink and J. M. van den Berg

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:59

    Content type: Research article

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  29. While musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) use in pediatric rheumatology is becoming more common, the majority of pediatric MSUS literature continues to focus on ultrasound findings in healthy children and juveni...

    Authors: Laura R. Ballenger, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel and Edward J. Oberle

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:58

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Lupus podocytopathy (LP) is a renal affection described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with nephrotic range proteinuria, characterized by diffuse foot process effacement without immune deposits...

    Authors: Hend H. Abdelnabi

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:57

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in children and adolescents. Both the disease and its treatment with glucocorticoids may negatively impact bone formation. In ...

    Authors: Henriette Schermacher Marstein, Kristin Godang, Berit Flatø, Ivar Sjaastad, Jens Bollerslev and Helga Sanner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:56

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Alterations in the composition of the fecal microbiota in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been observed in several studies, but it has not been determined whether the standard treatment ...

    Authors: Anders Öman, Johan Dicksved, Lars Engstrand and Lillemor Berntson

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:55

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in NCF1 lead to reactive oxygen species deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Heterozygosity for the p.Arg90His variant in NCF1 has been associated with susceptib...

    Authors: Oskar Schnappauf, Liane Heale, Dilan Dissanayake, Wanxia L. Tsai, Massimo Gadina, Thomas L. Leto, Daniel L. Kastner, Harry L. Malech, Douglas B. Kuhns, Ivona Aksentijevich and Ronald M. Laxer

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:54

    Content type: Case Report

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  34. The involvement of the central nervous system is not rare in rheumatoid diseases. Even though children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may face academic difficulties until adulthood, very few studies ...

    Authors: Marine Granjon, Odile Rohmer, Nadège Doignon-Camus, Maria Popa-Roch, Christine Pietrement and Nathalie Gavens

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:53

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Involving the end-users of scientific research (patients, carers and clinicians) in setting research priorities is important to formulate research questions that truly make a difference and are in tune with th...

    Authors: Anouk Verwoerd, Wineke Armbrust, Katherine Cowan, Lotte van den Berg, Joke de Boer, Sanne Bookelman, Marjan Britstra, Jeannette Cappon, Maria Certan, Christine Dedding, Karin van den Haspel, Petra Hissink Muller, Karin Jongsma, Otto Lelieveld, Jorg van Loosdregt, Wendy Olsder…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:52

    Content type: Research article

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    • Context: Methotrexate (MTX) is a cornerstone in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). MTX treatment is commonly associated with nause...

    Authors: Nini Kyvsgaard, Torben Stamm Mikkelsen, Thomas D. Als, Anne Estmann Christensen, Thomas J. Corydon and Troels Herlin

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:51

    Content type: Short Report

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  36. Non-infectious uveitis is a well-reported cause of blindness in more developed countries, however data from sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. Here we aim to describe the diseases associated with paediatric non-in...

    Authors: Waheba Slamang, Christopher Tinley, Nicola Brice and Christiaan Scott

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:50

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The early detection of uveitis associated with systemic inflammatory disease in children is important for proper treatment and prognosis. However, the diagnosis may be delayed because of difficulties in childh...

    Authors: Yoonkyeom Shin, Ji-Man Kang, Junwon Lee, Christopher Seungkyu Lee, Sung Chul Lee and Jong Gyun Ahn

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:48

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) are associated with a significant sex-bias, which becomes more evident post-puberty. This systematic review aims to elucidate the bidirectional relationship between puberty...

    Authors: Nina M. de Gruijter, Meena Naja, Hannah Peckham, Anna Radziszewska, Matthew Kinsella, James Glenister, Elizabeth C. Rosser, Gary E. Butler, Elizabeth C. Jury and Coziana Ciurtin

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:47

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors are prescribed in adult and paediatric rheumatology. Due to age-dependent changes, disease course, and pharmacokinetic...

    Authors: Tatjana Welzel, Carolyn Winskill, Nancy Zhang, Andreas Woerner and Marc Pfister

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:46

    Content type: Review

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  40. Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is an autoinflammatory disease affecting bone with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity and variable association with other autoinflammatory conditions. Disease pathog...

    Authors: Daire O’Leary, Anthony G. Wilson, Emma-Jane MacDermott, Clodagh Lowry and Orla G. Killeen

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:45

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The aim of this study was to: (i) describe the abnormalities seen on brain imaging in a group of children with en coup de sabre (EDCS) with/without Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS); and (ii) identify clinical pred...

    Authors: Harry Knights, Elizabeth Minas, Faraan Khan, Lindsay Shaw, Muthana Al Obaidi, Kshitij Mankad and Despina Eleftheriou

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:42

    Content type: Research article

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