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  1. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the colour representation of the graph is not correct in Figure 6 legend.

    Authors: Wan-Fang Lee, Chao-Yi Wu, Huang-Yu Yang, Wen-I Lee, Li-Chen Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou and Jing-Long Huang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:18

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:69

  2. Rare autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) including Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndrome (CAPS), Tumor Necrosis Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) and Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency Syndrome (MKD)/ Hype...

    Authors: Sandra Hansmann, Elke Lainka, Gerd Horneff, Dirk Holzinger, Nikolaus Rieber, Annette F. Jansson, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Gabi Erbis, Martina Prelog, Juergen Brunner, Susanne M. Benseler and Jasmin B. Kuemmerle-Deschner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:17

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  3. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the corresponding author’s given name is spelled incorrectly. The given name, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Mark Connelly and Jennifer E. Weiss

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:16

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:72

  4. Neurological involvement has been reported in up to 80% of adults with Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) with psychiatric abnormalities including anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction being common. Psy...

    Authors: Erin K. Hammett, Cristina Fernandez-Carbonell, Courtney Crayne, Alexis Boneparth, Randy Q. Cron and Suhas M. Radhakrishna

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:15

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  5. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the author Joan Calzada should not have been included to the team of authors. The authors’ team, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Ivan Foeldvari, Jens Klotsche, Gabriele Simonini, Clive Edelsten, Sheila T. Angeles-Han, Regitze Bangsgaard, Joke de Boer, Gabriele Brumm, Rosa Bou Torrent, Tamas Constantin, Cinzia DeLibero, Jesus Diaz, Valeria Maria Gerloni, Margarida Guedes, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Kaisu Kotaniemi…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:14

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:66

  6. Treatment of rheumatic diseases in children often includes long-term needle injections, which represent a risk for refusing medication based on potential needle-fear. How nurses manage children’s fear and pain...

    Authors: Kari Sørensen, Helge Skirbekk, Gunnvald Kvarstein and Hilde Wøien

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:13

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Methotrexate (MTX) therapy has proven to be a successful and safe treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Despite the high efficacy rates of MTX, treatment outcomes are often complicated by burdenso...

    Authors: Rosanne M. Smits, Dieuwke S. Veldhuijzen, Henriet van Middendorp, Petra C. E. Hissink Muller, Wineke Armbrust, Elizabeth Legger, Nico M. Wulffraat and Andrea W. M. Evers

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:12

    Content type: Hypothesis

    Published on:

  8. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the authors’ first names and last names are presented in wrong order. The presentation of names, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Julia Nentwich, Katharina Ruf, Hermann Girschick, Annette Holl-Wieden, Henner Morbach, Helge Hebestreit and Christine Hofmann

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:11

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:45

  9. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can cause osseous deformity in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and may impair mandibular growth. This study aimed to evaluate whether facial asymmetry determined clinicall...

    Authors: Joëlle M. Bernini, Christian J. Kellenberger, Martina Eichenberger, Theodore Eliades, Spyridon N. Papageorgiou and Raphael Patcas

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:10

    Content type: Research article

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  10. In order to provide juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with better pre-conceptional and prenatal counselling, we investigated the obstetrical and neonatal outcomes among women with Asian descent.

    Authors: Shang Jun Zhang-Jian, Huang-Yu Yang, Meng-Jun Chiu, I-Jun Chou, Chang-Fu Kuo, Jing-Long Huang, Kuo-Wei Yeh and Chao-Yi Wu

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:9

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  11. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the corresponding author’s given name is spelled incorrectly.

    Authors: Jennifer E. Weiss, Kenneth N. Schikler, Alexis D. Boneparth and Mark Connelly

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:8

    Content type: Correction

    Published on:

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:51

  12. Serum phagocyte-derived alarmins S100A8/9 and S100A12 are considered useful for the assessment of inflammatory diseases. Our study evaluated the use of S100 proteins in a pediatric clinical setting for estimat...

    Authors: Najla Aljaberi, Elena Tronconi, Grant Schulert, Alexei A. Grom, Daniel J. Lovell, Jennifer L. Huggins, Michael Henrickson and Hermine I. Brunner

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:7

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Axial SpA and Enthesitis related arthritis (ERA) patients show strong HLA-B27 association, gut dysbiosis, high toll like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 expression on monocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and ...

    Authors: Shruti Bhattacharya, Ramnath Misra and Amita Aggarwal

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:6

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Global disease activity scores (gVAS) capture patient or family (PF) and physician (MD) assessments of disease. This study sought to measure discordance between PF and MD global activity scores in juvenile der...

    Authors: Heather Tory, David Zurakowski and Susan Kim

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:5

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Studies evaluating treatment responses for chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) are lacking. We aimed to measure and compare response rates of medical treatments, time to response of medical treatments amo...

    Authors: Austin Gaal, Matthew L. Basiaga, Yongdong Zhao and Mark Egbert

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:4

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The primary caregiver is an important person in the life of patients with JIA. Their reactions depend on social, emotional and economic factors that affect the therapeutic alliance. Some generic instruments ha...

    Authors: Marcia Daniela Torres-Made, Ingris Peláez-Ballestas, Fernando García-Rodríguez, Ana Victoria Villarreal-Treviño, Brenda de Jesús Fortuna-Reyna, Manuel Enrique de la O-Cavazos and Nadina Eugenia Rubio-Pérez

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:3

    Content type: Research article

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  17. This study aimed to determine the influence of tocilizumab (TCZ) in modifying the clinical and laboratory features of macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) complicating systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s...

    Authors: Masaki Shimizu, Mao Mizuta, Nami Okamoto, Takahiro Yasumi, Naomi Iwata, Hiroaki Umebayashi, Yuka Okura, Noriko Kinjo, Tomohiro Kubota, Yasuo Nakagishi, Kenichi Nishimura, Mariko Mohri, Masato Yashiro, Junko Yasumura, Hiroyuki Wakiguchi and Masaaki Mori

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:2

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The aim of this study was to identify early clinical and laboratory features that distinguish acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) from juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in children presenting with persistent ...

    Authors: Mathilde Louvigné, Josué Rakotonjanahary, Laurence Goumy, Aude Tavenard, Jean-François Brasme, Fanny Rialland, André Baruchel, Marie-Françoise Auclerc, Véronique Despert, Marie Desgranges, Sylvie Jean, Albert Faye, Ulrich Meinzer, Mathie Lorrot, Chantal Job-Deslandre, Brigitte Bader-Meunier…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:1

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Chronic musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is frequent in adolescents and has major medical and social consequences. In many cases, when no cause has been clearly established, this pain may be considered to be chronic...

    Authors: Hervé Lefèvre, Alexandra Loisel, Brigitte Bader Meunier, Chantal Deslandre, Noémie Lemoine, Marie Rose Moro, Pierre Quartier and Jonathan Lachal

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:86

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Recruitment of pediatric participants in studies is difficult due to the vulnerability of this population and the scarcity of certain conditions. Co-enrolling in multiple studies is a strategy that may help ov...

    Authors: Leanne K. Elliott, Herman Bami, Maxwell J. Gelkopf, Ryan C. Yee, Brian M. Feldman and Y. Ingrid Goh

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:85

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is the most catastrophic form of heterotopic ossification, due to ongoing intracellular signaling through the bone morphogenic protein pathway. The paroxysmal appear...

    Authors: Ruby Haviv, Veronica Moshe, Fabrizio De Benedetti, Giusi Prencipe, Noa Rabinowicz and Yosef Uziel

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:84

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  22. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between psychosocial factors, signs and symptoms of orofacial pain and jaw dysfunction in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

    Authors: Alexandra Dimitrijevic Carlsson, Kerstin Wahlund, Erik Kindgren, Thomas Skogh, Carin Starkhammar Johansson and Per Alstergren

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:83

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The oral microbiota has been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis through activation of mucosal immunity. This study tested for associations between oral health, microbial communities and juv...

    Authors: Sriharsha Grevich, Peggy Lee, Brian Leroux, Sarah Ringold, Richard Darveau, Gretchen Henstorf, Joel Berg, Amy Kim, Elizabeth Velan, Joseph Kelly, Camille Baltuck, Anne Reeves, Hannah Leahey, Kyle Hager, Mitchell Brittnacher, Hillary Hayden…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:81

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  24. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) may cause significant impairment in health-related quality of life (HrQoL), despite effective therapies. The aim of this study was to assess HrQoL during first-year treatmen...

    Authors: Maarit Tarkiainen, Pirjo Tynjälä, Paula Vähäsalo, Liisa Kröger, Kristiina Aalto and Pekka Lahdenne

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:80

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Refractory non-infectious uveitis is a serious condition that leads to ocular complications and vision loss and requires effective systemic treatment to control disease. The effectiveness of long-term inflixim...

    Authors: Virginia Miraldi Utz, Sabrina Bulas, Sarah Lopper, Matthew Fenchel, Ting Sa, Mitul Mehta, Daniel Ash, Daniel J. Lovell and Adam H. Kaufman

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:79

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  26. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance prediction is one pivotal topic of interests in Kawasaki disease (KD) since those patients with KD resistant to IVIG might improve of an early-intensified therapy. ...

    Authors: Shuran Shao, Chunyan Luo, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua, Mei Wu, Lei Liu, Xiaoliang Liu and Chuan Wang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:78

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  27. Evidence remains contradictory regarding second-line therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) refractory to initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). The objective of this study aims to evaluate the eff...

    Authors: Courtney B. Crayne, Chace Mitchell and Timothy Beukelman

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:77

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  28. Pediatric onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with major organ involvement, and African patients tend to develop more aggressive disease than patients of European descent. Although cardio...

    Authors: Michael J. Harrison, Liesl J. Zühlke, Laura B. Lewandowski and Christiaan Scott

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:76

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis of childhood and affects the small blood vessels. Pulmonary involvement is a rare complication of HSP and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is the m...

    Authors: Giada Maria Di Pietro, Massimo Luca Castellazzi, Antonio Mastrangelo, Giovanni Montini, Paola Marchisio and Claudia Tagliabue

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:75

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  30. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), the most common chronic rheumatic disease of childhood, is characterised by synovitis. Clinical assessments of synovitis are imperfect, relying on composite and indirect me...

    Authors: Joshua L. Bennett, Amanda Wood, Nicola Smith, Ravi Mistry, Karen Allen, Sharmila Jandial, John D. Tuckett, S. Claire Gowdy, Helen E. Foster, Flora McErlane and Kieren G. Hollingsworth

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:74

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  31. Severe pain and impairments in functioning are commonly reported for youth with juvenile fibromyalgia. The prevalence and impact of pain in other diseases commonly managed in pediatric rheumatology comparative...

    Authors: Mark Connelly and Jennifer E. Weiss

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:72

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:16

  32. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with marked variation in its clinical presentation. Juvenile SLE (jSLE) accounts for 15–20% of all cases and is diagnosed when SLE manifests b...

    Authors: D. O’Leary, C. O’Connor, L. Nertney, E. J. MacDermott, D. Mullane, O. Franklin and O. G. Killeen

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:71

    Content type: Case Report

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  33. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and understanding of many autoinflammatory diseases, there are still a great number of patients with phenotypes that do not fit any clinically- and/or genetically-defin...

    Authors: Lori B. Tucker, Lovro Lamot, Iwona Niemietz, Brian K. Chung, David A. Cabral, Kristin Houghton, Ross E. Petty, Kimberly A. Morishita, Gillian I. Rice, Stuart E. Turvey, William T. Gibson and Kelly L. Brown

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:70

    Content type: Case Report

    Published on:

  34. Endothelium is a key element in the regulation of vascular homeostasis and its alteration can lead to the development of vascular diseases. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease w...

    Authors: Wan-Fang Lee, Chao-Yi Wu, Huang-Yu Yang, Wen-I Lee, Li-Chen Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou and Jing-Long Huang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:69

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:18

  35. Infrared Thermography (IRT) has been used for over 30 years in the assessment of Raynaud Phenomenon (RP) and other peripheral microvascular dysfunctions in adults but, to date, very little experience is availa...

    Authors: Giorgia Martini, Michela Cappella, Roberta Culpo, Fabio Vittadello, Monica Sprocati and Francesco Zulian

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:68

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Biologic medications have dramatically enhanced the treatment of many chronic paediatric inflammatory conditions. Their high cost is a factor that prohibits their broader use. Cheaper generic versions, or bios...

    Authors: William D. Renton, Helen Leveret, Catherine Guly, Heather Smee, Jamie Leveret and Athimalaipet V. Ramanan

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:67

    Content type: Research article

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  37. JIA-associated uveitis (JIAU) is a serious, sight-threatening disease with significant long-term complications and risk of blindness, even with improved contemporary treatments. The MIWGUC was set up in order ...

    Authors: Ivan Foeldvari, Jens Klotsche, Gabriele Simonini, Clive Edelsten, Sheila T. Angeles-Han, Regitze Bangsgaard, Joke de Boer, Gabriele Brumm, Rosa Bou Torrent, Tamas Constantin, Cinzia DeLibero, Jesus Diaz, Valeria Maria Gerloni, Margarida Guedes, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Kaisu Kotaniemi…

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:66

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:14

  38. The prediction of resistance to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) is currently still one of the main research areas in Kawasaki disease (KD). Several studies have reported on the use of N-terminal pro-brain n...

    Authors: Shuran Shao, Chunyan Luo, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua, Mei Wu, Lei Liu, Xiaoliang Liu and Chuan Wang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:65

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  39. In adult patients with arthritis, use of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor etanercept (ETN) is often associated with a reduction in the utilization of co-medications, particularly steroids. Comparative...

    Authors: Majed Khraishi, Brad Millson, John Woolcott, Heather Jones, Lisa Marshall and Nicolino Ruperto

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:64

    Content type: Research article

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  40. To determine the serum levels of the lectin pathway proteins early in the disease course and 17 years after disease onset and to correlate the protein levels to markers of disease activity in participants from...

    Authors: Mia Glerup, Steffen Thiel, Veronika Rypdal, Ellen Dalen Arnstad, Maria Ekelund, Suvi Peltoniemi, Kristiina Aalto, Marite Rygg, Susan Nielsen, Anders Fasth, Lillemor Berntson, Ellen Nordal and Troels Herlin

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:63

    Content type: Research article

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  41. To evaluate radiographic progression of patients with new-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in response to an early, tightly-controlled, treatment-to-target.

    Authors: P. C. E. Hissink Muller, W. G. van Braak, D. Schreurs, C. M. Nusman, S. A. Bergstra, R. Hemke, D. Schonenberg-Meinema, J. M. van den Berg, T. W. Kuijpers, Y. Koopman-Keemink, M. A. J. van Rossum, L. W. A. van Suijlekom-Smit, D. M. C. Brinkman, C. F. Allaart, R. ten Cate and M. Maas

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:62

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Despite the increased use of rituximab in treating pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases in the last decade, there are limited data on rituximab safety in those subjects who have a developing immune syst...

    Authors: Amer M. Khojah, Michael L. Miller, Marisa S. Klein-Gitelman, Megan L. Curran, Victoria Hans, Lauren M. Pachman and Ramsay L. Fuleihan

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:61

    Content type: Research article

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  43. While pain is a common symptom in JIA patients, it remains unclear why some JIA patients develop ongoing or persistent pain. Complex clinical and social settings confound analysis of individual factors that ma...

    Authors: Annastazia E. Learoyd, Debajit Sen and Maria Fitzgerald

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:60

    Content type: Research article

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  44. The COPA syndrome is a newly recognized monogenic, autosomal dominant autoimmune disease presenting mostly presenting in childhood. Clinical features include inflammation of the lungs, kidneys, and joints. App...

    Authors: Anjali Patwardhan and Charles H. Spencer

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:59

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  45. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has been categorized into seven different categories according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria. Enthesitis-related arthritis (ER...

    Authors: Yang-Jen Shih, Yao-Hsu Yang, Chun-Ying Lin, Chia-Ling Chang and Bor-Luen Chiang

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:58

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  46. The anti–interleukin-6 receptor-alpha antibody tocilizumab was approved for intravenous (IV) injection in the treatment of patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) aged 2 to 17 years based o...

    Authors: Navita L. Mallalieu, Sunethra Wimalasundera, Joy C. Hsu, Wendy Douglass, Chris Wells, Inmaculada Calvo Penades, Ruben Cuttica, Hans-Iko Huppertz, Rik Joos, Yukiko Kimura, Diana Milojevic, Margalit Rosenkranz, Kenneth Schikler, Tamas Constantin and Carine Wouters

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:57

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

  47. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) until recently have been considered a heterogeneous broad group of six autoimmune muscle diseases. Initially, autoantibodies in IIM (including JDM) and CD8+ T cell-...

    Authors: Anjali Patwardhan and Charles H. Spencer

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:56

    Content type: Review

    Published on:

  48. Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) patients may show systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like autoimmunity disorders, such as cytopenias, as well as polyarthritis, which leads to concerns of misdiagnosis....

    Authors: Wei Wang, Yu Zhou, Linqing Zhong, Lin Wang, Xiaoyan Tang, Mingsheng Ma, Ji Li and Hongmei Song

    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:55

    Content type: Research article

    Published on:

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