Skip to main content

Table 1 Diagnoses and examination findings in patients with abnormal pGALS examination

From: Acceptability and practicality of a Spanish translation of paediatric Gait Arms Legs and Spine (pGALS) in Peruvian children

Presenting complaint Examination findings on pGALS screen Diagnosis
Patients with abnormal pGALS findings and MSK diagnoses
Limp, painful right leg Unable to complete leg movements – pain Fractured femur
Abnormal appearance of gait and leg
Swollen elbow, painful left arm Pain on all arm movements, swelling of elbow Fractured humerus
Cough, fever Loss of foot arches, joint hypermobility Hypermobility/HIV positive, Tuberculosis, pneumonia
Limp, painful leg Antalgic gait Tibial diaphysis fracture
Unable to complete knee and hip movements – pain
Painful throat and fever Loss of foot arches, hypermobility Hypermobility/Viral tonsillitis
Fever and vomiting Loss of foot arches, pain, hypermobility Hypermobility/Dengue Fever
Fall and right arm pain Pain and restriction of all arm movements Fracture of radius and ulna
Fever Pain, loss of foot arches, hypermobility Hypermobility/Suspected Dengue fever
Patients with abnormal pGALS findings and non-MSK diagnoses
Penetrating injury to left foot Abnormal antalgic gait Soft tissue trauma
Animal trap trauma to foot Abnormal gait Extensive soft tissue injury to right foot
Traumatic injury to chest Pain on shoulder flexion Traumatic injury to chest and abdomen, soft tissue injury and liver
Snake bite, painful, swollen left leg Unable to complete gait examination, pain on knee movements Snake Bite
Painful, swollen right leg Leg swelling, abnormal gait appearance Cellulitis
Facial pain Pain and restricted movement of Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) Mastoiditis
Fever, sore throat Pain on extension of cervical spine Tonsillitis
Fever, testicular swelling Antalgic gait Dengue fever - arthralgia, testicular oedema
Pain on extension of cervical spine
Fever and parotid swelling Pain and restriction at TMJ Parotid abscess
Traumatic amputation of right hand first finger Pain on metacarpophalangeal squeeze Traumatic amputation of right hand first finger
Pain on finger and thumb movements