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Table 3 Comparison of effects of exercise training between treatment groups

From: Exercise in children with joint hypermobility syndrome and knee pain: a randomised controlled trial comparing exercise into hypermobile versus neutral knee extension

Outcome measure Neutral training group (n=14) Hypermobile training group (n=11) Difference in change scores between groups P value Cohen’s D
  Baseline mean (SD) Post-treatment mean (SD) Mean change Baseline mean (SD) Post-treatment mean (SD) Mean change      
        Mean difference (H-N) Lower bound of 95% CI Upper bound of 95% CI   
Primary Outcome Measures
Child’s report of mean knee pain over the week 1 40.04 (16.59) 20.14 (18.37) −19.9 38.55 (16.89) 29.36 (17.99) −9.19 10.71 −7.9 29.33 0.246 0.61
Child’s report of maximum knee pain over the week 1 57.68 (23.12) 35.64 (28.57) −22.04 53.23 (23.55) 39.18 (27.21) −14.05 7.99 −14.66 30.64 0.473 0.31
Secondary Outcome Measures
Child Reported Measures
PGIC2 0.29 (1.14) 1.71 (0.99) 1.43 0.18 (0.87) 1.82 (0.75) 1.64 0.21 −0.81 1.22 0.675 0.22
CHAQ 383 −0.13 (0.44) −0.01 (0.60) 0.12 0.04 (0.71) 0.05 (0.72) 0.02 0.10 −0.25 0.45 0.552 0.16
Physical Measures
Overall thigh strength (N) 4.02 (1.72) 4.9 (2.17) 0.88 4.38 (2.37) 5.59 (1.45) 1.21 0.33 −1.66 1 0.608 0.17
No. of flights of stairs ran in 2 minutes 16.32 (5.00) 20.11 (5.52) 3.79 20.88 (6.69) 20.55 (5.44) −0.33 −4.12 0.301 −8.523 0.118 0.73
Parent Reported Measures (CHQ-PF50) 4
Physical Summary Score 32.01 (11.86) 42.08 (10.81) 10.07 41.61 (14.96) 43.91 (15.05) 2.3 −7.77 −14.99 −0.55 0.037* 0.59
Psychosocial Summary Score 46.35 (12.26) 45.41 (13.49) −0.94 46.29 (8.95) 54.41 (4.42) 8.12 9.06 2.66 15.47 0.009* 0.83
  1. 1 Using the 0 - 100 mm VAS.
  2. 2 Patient’s Global Impression of Change (PGIC).
  3. 3 Child Health Assessment Questionnaire – 38 question version (CHAQ-38).
  4. 4 Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ).
  5. *p<0.05 statistically significant.