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  1. Early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) and Blau syndrome (BS) are systemic inflammatory granulomatous diseases without visible pulmonary involvement, and are distinguishable from their sporadic and familial forms. The ...

    Authors: Fumiko Okazaki, Hiroyuki Wakiguchi, Yuno Korenaga, Tamaki Nakamura, Hiroki Yasudo, Shohei Uchi, Ryoji Yanai, Nobuyuki Asano, Yoshinobu Hoshii, Tsuyoshi Tanabe, Kazushi Izawa, Yoshitaka Honda, Ryuta Nishikomori, Keisuke Uchida, Yoshinobu Eishi, Shouichi Ohga…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:18
  2. Tibial stress injuries are frequent injuries of the lower extremity and the most common causes of exercise-induced leg pain among athletes and military recruits. They sometimes occur in patients with pathologi...

    Authors: Tomo Nozawa, Audrey Bell-Peter, Andrea S. Doria, Jo-Anne Marcuz, Jennifer Stimec, Kristi Whitney and Brian M. Feldman
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:17
  3. Disordered eating and chronic pain often co-occur in adolescents, but the relationship between these conditions is not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and to identify the clinical char...

    Authors: Lauren Pianucci, Maitry Sonagra, Brooke A. Greenberg, Diana R. Priestley and Sabrina Gmuca
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:16
  4. Patients with systemic lupus erythematous have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which is not fully explained by traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Despite increasing life...

    Authors: Dori Abel, Stacy P. Ardoin and Mark Gorelik
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:15
  5. Prompt diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is important to avoid long term complications. Elevated serum 14–3-3η levels improve the diagnostic sensitivity of rheumatoid factor (RF) and cyclic citr...

    Authors: Iris Reyhan, Olga S. Zhukov, Robert J. Lagier, Robert F. Bridgforth, Gary J. Williams, Joanna M. Popov, Stanley J. Naides and Andreas Reiff
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:14
  6. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome and is caused by a severely dysregulated immune response. It has rarely been associated with neonatal lupus.

    Authors: Veerle Heijstek, Meelad Habib, Roel van der Palen, Remco van Doorn and Petra Hissink Muller
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:13
  7. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, and the formation of coronary artery lesions(CAL) is its most common sequela. Both genetic and environmental factors are considered to be important factors of in...

    Authors: Jia Yuan, Zhiyong Jiang, Meiai Li, Wei Li, Xueping Gu, Zhouping Wang, Lei Pi, Yufen Xu, Huazhong Zhou, Baidu Zhang, Qiulian Deng, Yanfei Wang, Ping Huang, Li Zhang and Xiaoqiong Gu
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:12
  8. Paediatric rheumatic diseases are a leading cause of acquired disability in Southeast Asia and Asia-Pacific Countries (SE ASIA/ASIAPAC). The aims of this study were to identify and describe the challenges to t...

    Authors: Sirikarn Tangcheewinsirikul, Swee-Ping Tang, Nicola Smith, Maynart Sukharomana, Sirirat Charuvanij, Soamarat Vilaiyuk, Thaschawee Arkachaisri, Christiaan Scott and Helen E. Foster
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:11
  9. Overall outcomes of pediatric rheumatic diseases (RD) have improved due to treatment with biologic agents and methotrexate. For many children, this treatment often entails regular needle injections. Pain and f...

    Authors: Kari Sørensen, Helge Skirbekk, Gunnvald Kvarstein and Hilde Wøien
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:8
  10. Shrinking lung syndrome (SLS), a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) characterized by dyspnea, low lung volumes, and a restrictive pattern on pulmonary function tests (PFTs), has only been ...

    Authors: Chelsea DeCoste, Dimas Mateos-Corral and Bianca Lang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:7
  11. Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is a rare and sometimes fatal disease in children. The anti-NXP2 antibody is one of the most common antibodies and muscle ischaemia associated with NXP2 autoantibodies was a seve...

    Authors: Xinning Wang, Yuchuan Ding, Zhixuan Zhou, Jun Hou, Yingjie Xu and Jianguo Li
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:6
  12. Remission is the primary objective of treating juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). It is still debatable whether early intensive treatment is superior in terms of earlier achievement of remission. The aim of ...

    Authors: Ekaterina Alexeeva, Gerd Horneff, Tatyana Dvoryakovskaya, Rina Denisova, Irina Nikishina, Elena Zholobova, Viktor Malievskiy, Galina Santalova, Elena Stadler, Larisa Balykova, Yuriy Spivakovskiy, Ivan Kriulin, Alina Alshevskaya and Andrey Moskalev
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:5
  13. Observations among Israeli pediatric rheumatologists reveal that pediatric Juvenile Spondyloarthritis (JSpA) may present differently compared to patients from the United States (US). This study is aimed to com...

    Authors: Nassem Ghantous, Merav Heshin-Bekenstein, Kimberly Dequattro, Yaniv Lakovsky, Amir Moshe Hendel, Nadav Rappoport, Yonatan Butbul Aviel, Irit Tirosh, Liora Harel, Pamela F. Weiss, Lianne Gensler, John Mackenzie and Gil Amarilyo
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:4
  14. To characterize suicidality among youth with juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome (JFMS) receiving treatment from pediatric rheumatologists at a tertiary care center in order to determine the prevalence of suicidali...

    Authors: Sabrina Gmuca, Maitry Sonagra, Rui Xiao, Kimberly S. Miller, Nina H. Thomas, Jami F. Young, Pamela F. Weiss, David D. Sherry and Jeffrey S. Gerber
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:3
  15. To summarize the characteristics of gastrointestinal (GI) perforation in anti-nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP2) antibody-associated juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM).

    Authors: Yingjie Xu, Xiaolin Ma, Zhixuan Zhou, Jianguo Li, Jun Hou, Jia Zhu, Min Kang, Jianming Lai and Xiaohui Li
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:2
  16. Type I interferonopathies are a group of rare autoimmune diseases characterised by excessive activation of type I interferon that leads to disturbances in immune function. Three prime repair exonuclease 1 (TRE...

    Authors: Shiyu Zhang, Jiaxing Song, Yuyan Yang, Huilei Miao, Lu Yang, Yuehua Liu, Xue Zhang, Yaping Liu and Tao Wang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:1
  17. Children with JIA may experience difficulty with health related quality of life (HRQOL). The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) a patient related outcome (PRO) measure, covers HR...

    Authors: Yufan Yan, Karen L. Rychlik, Marc B. Rosenman and Michael L. Miller
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:92
  18. Measuring the outcomes that matter to children and young people (CYP) with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is a necessary precursor to patient-centred improvements in quality of clinical care. We present ...

    Authors: Laura E. Lunt, Stephanie Shoop-Worrall, Nicola Smith, Gavin Cleary, Janet McDonagh, Andrew D. Smith, Wendy Thomson and Flora McErlane
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:91
  19. To examine critical interactions between juvenile idiopathic arthritis synovial fibroblasts (JFLS) and chondrocytes (Ch), and their role in bony overgrowth seen in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (...

    Authors: Megan M. Simonds, Amanda R. Schlefman, Suzanne M. McCahan, Kathleen E. Sullivan, Carlos D. Rose and AnneMarie C. Brescia
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:89
  20. We sought to evaluate racial disparities in disease outcomes among children with polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) during a treat-to-target (TTT) intervention with clinical decision support (CDS).

    Authors: Joyce C. Chang, Rui Xiao, Jon M. Burnham and Pamela F. Weiss
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:88
  21. Concerns about the safety and efficacy of vaccines in patients with autoimmune diseases (AID) have led to contradictions and low vaccination coverage in this population, who are at a higher risk of infections,...

    Authors: Ingrid Herta Rotstein Grein, Natalia Balera Ferreira Pinto, Noortje Groot, Camila Bertini Martins, Aline Lobo, Nadia Emi Aikawa, Cassia Barbosa, Maria Teresa Terreri, Aline Coelho Moreira da Fraga, Sheila Knupp Feitosa de Oliveira, Flavio Sztajnbok, Luciana B. Paim Marques, Aline Garcia Islabão, Simone Appenzeller, Blanca Bica, Juliana de Oliveira Sato…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:87
  22. Though outcome differences between children and adults with immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV) has been well documented, it remains unclear if disease features in pediatric IgAV patients vary with onset age. W...

    Authors: Chun-Hua Liao, Melody Tsai, Yao-Hsu Yang, Bor-Luen Chiang and Li-Chieh Wang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:86
  23. The use of telemedicine in pediatric rheumatology has been historically low. The current COVID 19 global pandemic has forced a paradigm shift with many centers rapidly adopting virtual visits to conduct care r...

    Authors: Susan Shenoi, Kristen Hayward, Megan L. Curran, Elizabeth Kessler, Jay J. Mehta, Meredith P. Riebschleger and Helen E. Foster
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:85
  24. Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic small-vessel vasculitis also named IgA vasculitis that commonly affects the gastrointestinal tract. The video capsule endoscopy (VCE) characteristics of pediatric H...

    Authors: Youhong Fang, Kerong Peng, Hong Zhao and Jie Chen
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:84

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2022 20:33

  25. Heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) catalyzes the metabolism of heme into carbon monoxide, ferrous iron, and biliverdin. Through biliverdin reductase, biliverdin becomes bilirubin. HMOX1-deficiency is a rare autosomal reces...

    Authors: Alice S. Chau, Bonnie L. Cole, Jason S. Debley, Kabita Nanda, Aaron B. I. Rosen, Michael J. Bamshad, Deborah A. Nickerson, Troy R. Torgerson and Eric J. Allenspach
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:80

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2022 20:19

  26. We aimed to test if standardized point-of-care outcome monitoring and clinical decision support (CDS), as compared to standard care, improves disease activity and patient-reported pain in children with enthesi...

    Authors: Francesca Tirelli, Rui Xiao, Timothy G. Brandon, Jon M. Burnham, Joyce C. Chang and Pamela F. Weiss
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:79
  27. Children presenting with musculoskeletal pain to pediatric rheumatology clinics are very heterogeneous and on a continuum from those with localized pain to total body pain. Many report intermittent, rather tha...

    Authors: David D. Sherry, Maitry Sonagra and Sabrina Gmuca
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:77
  28. Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common pediatric systemic vasculitides of unknown etiology. Recent clinical studies led to reappraisal of the usefulness of initial combination therapy of intravenous immunogl...

    Authors: Takashi Inoue, Shokei Murakami, Kenji Matsumoto and Akio Matsuda
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:76
  29. Intraarticular corticosteroids (IACs) have been used to treat temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis. However, prospective clinical studies with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scoring are lacking. The aim o...

    Authors: Paula Frid, Thomas A. Augdal, Tore A. Larheim, Josefine Halbig, Veronika Rypdal, Nils Thomas Songstad, Annika Rosén, Karin B. Tylleskär, Johanna Rykke Berstad, Berit Flatø, Peter Stoustrup, Karen Rosendahl, Eva Kirkhus and Ellen Nordal
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:75
  30. Acquired complement deficiency can occur in the setting of autoimmune syndromes, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with very low or, occasionally, undetectable C3 levels. Based on inherited complemen...

    Authors: Taha Al-Shaikhly, Kristen Hayward, Matthew L. Basiaga and Eric J. Allenspach
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:74
  31. The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI) has been utilized to assess Sjögren syndrome-related systemic involvement in adult patients. To date, however, th...

    Authors: Naomi Iwata, Minako Tomiita, Ichiro Kobayashi, Yusaburo Inoue, Yukiko Nonaka, Nami Okamoto, Hiroaki Umebayashi, Ryoki Hara, Yasuhiko Ito, Yasunori Sato and Masaaki Mori
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:73
  32. Myhre syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by gain of function mutations in the SMAD Family Member 4 (SMAD4) gene, resulting in progressive, proliferative skin and organ fibrosis. Skin thickening and joint contr...

    Authors: Barbara Jensen, Rebecca James, Ying Hong, Ebun Omoyinmi, Clarissa Pilkington, Neil J. Sebire, Kevin J. Howell, Paul A. Brogan and Despina Eleftheriou
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:72
  33. There is a lack of awareness of paediatric rheumatic diseases (PRDs), among the public, and certain groups of healthcare professionals (HCPs), including general practitioners. To help improve international awa...

    Authors: Eve M. D. Smith, Sammy Ainsworth, Michael W. Beresford, Veerle Buys, Wendy Costello, Yona Egert, Helen E. Foster, Lovro Lamot, Berent J. Prakken, Christiaan Scott and Simon R. Stones
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:71
  34. Juvenile spondyloarthritis (JSpA) represents a group of inflammatory arthritides with several distinctive features (enthesitis, involvement of spine and sacroiliac joint, HLA-B27 association and development of...

    Authors: Achille Marino, Pamela F. Weiss, Timothy G. Brandon and Melissa A. Lerman
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:70
  35. A spectrum of rare noninflammatory disorders may present with arthropathy that arises from bony dysplasia, a thickened synovium, and noninflammatory effusion, leading to a constellation of clinical features th...

    Authors: Basil M. Fathalla, Elham Ahmed Elgabaly and Ahmad Abou Tayoun
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:69
  36. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis and involvement is commonly seen in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Therapy includes conservative measures, but also includes intraarticular corticosteroid injectio...

    Authors: Michael Lypka, Karina Shah and Jordan Jones
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:68
  37. Deficiency of the natural antagonist of interleukin-1 was first described in 2009 and so far 20 patients has been reported. In Brazil just two cases have been reported both carrying the same homozygous 15 bp d...

    Authors: Leonardo Oliveira Mendonça, Alice Grossi, Francesco Caroli, Robson Aguiar de Oliveira, Jorge Kalil, Fabio Fernandes Morato Castro, Alessandra Pontillo, Isabella Ceccherini, Myrthes Anna Maragna Toledo Barros and Marco Gattorno
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:67
  38. The purpose of this study was to identify reproductive health knowledge gaps and topics that concern adolescent and young adult (AYA) women with pediatric rheumatic diseases and their parents.

    Authors: Kristine Carandang, Veronica Mruk, Stacy P. Ardoin, Brittany Huynh, Megan E. B. Clowse, Elise D. Berlan and Cuoghi Edens
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:66
  39. Methotrexate is the most commonly used disease-modifying antirheumatic drug recommended in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. It can be administered orally or subcutaneously, the latter method is ...

    Authors: Justyna Roszkiewicz, Zbigniew Swacha and Elżbieta Smolewska
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:64
  40. Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) or necrotizing histiocytic lymphadenitis, was described separately by both Kikuchi and Fujimoto in Japan in the early 1970’s. Despite its rarity in the pediatric population, it i...

    Authors: Ashfaque Quadir, Ken Peacock, Peter Hsu, Davinder Singh-Grewal and Stephen Alexander
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:62

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