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Table 2 Number of infections during childhood in those who later developed JIA and in controls from the general population

From: Infections and antibiotics during fetal life and childhood and their relationship to juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a prospective cohort study

  Control JIA aOR (95% CI) p
From 1 to 12 month
 Upper respiratory tract infection (mean; SD) 3.7 (2.2) 3.9 (2.2) OR 0.9 (0.6–1.2) .382
 Gastroenteritis 0.5 (0.8) 0.6 (0.8) OR 1.5 (0.6–3.6) .345
 Influenza 0.2 (0.6) 0.3 (0.7) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .995
From 1 to 3 years
 Common cold 5.3 (2.3) 5.5 (2.3) OR 1.0 (0.8–1.4) .810
 Tonsillitis 0.3 (0.8) 0.3 (0.6) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .994
 Otitis 1.3 (1.8) 1.6 (1.9) OR 1.3 (0.8–1.9) .261
 Pneumonia 0.1 (0.4) 0.2 (0.5) OR 1.3 (0.3–6.0) .764
 Meningitis 0.0 (0.1) 0.0 (0.0) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .999
 Gastroenteritis 1.4 (1.3) 1.2 (1.0) OR 0.5 (0.2–1.1) .074
 Three-day fever 0.6 (1.0) 0.6 (0.7) OR 0.9 (0.4–1.9) .845
 Influenza 0.8 (1.2) 0.4 (0.8) OR 0.6 (0.2–1.6) .297
From 3 to 5 years
 Common cold 5.7 (2.3) 5.8 (2.1) OR 1.0 (0.7–1.3) .894
 Tonsillitis 0.5 (1.1) 0.8 (1.5) OR 0.9 (0.4–1.9) .837
 Otitis 1.2 (1.7) 1.3 (2.0) OR 0.7 (0.4–1.4) .331
 Pneumonia 0.1 (0.3) 0.1 (0.4) OR 2.2 (0.5–10.4) .323
 Meningitis 0.0 (0.2) 0.0 (0.0) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .999
 Gastroenteritis (viral) 2.1 (1.5) 2.4 (1.8) OR 1.1 (0.7–1.7) .556
 Gastroenteritis (bacterial) 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.3) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .997
 Pneumonia 0.1 (0.4) 0.1 (0.5) OR 1.3 (0.3–6.5) .748
 Three-day fever 0.5 (1.0) 0.6 (1.4) OR 1.1 (0.5–2.9) .774
 Influenza 0.9 (1.3) 1.3 (1.5) OR 1.1 (0.6–2.2) .693
From 5 to 8 years
 Common cold 4.0 (2.1) 4.6 (2.3) OR 1.2 (0.9–1.7) .252
 Tonsillitis 0.3 (0.8) 0.5 (0.9) OR 1.1 (0.4–2.6) .899
 Otitis 0.5 (1.1) 0.7 (1.4) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .992
 Meningitis 0.0 (0.2) 0.0 (0.0) OR 1.0 (1.0–1.0) .999
 Gastroenteritis 1.4 (1.3) 1.7 (1.2) OR 1.5 (0.8–2.5) .181
 Influenza 0.7 (1.0) 0.9 (1.1) OR 1.0 (0.5–2.0) .937
  1. JIA = juvenile idiopathic arthritis; aOR = adjusted odds ratio (from logistic regression)