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Table 1 Univariate relationships between clinical risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis and CIMT in juvenile systemic lupus study participants

From: Disease activity index is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

Variable (n) Subclinical Atherosclerosis
n (%) or mean [SD]
P value* CIMT – mm
mean [SD]
P value*
Yes No Opposite Dichotomic Control
Female (22) 8 (36.4) 14 (63.6) 0.68 0.42 [0.04] 0.46 [0.05] 0.08
Caucasian (11) 5 (45.4) 6 (54.5) 0.41 0.43 [0.04] 0.44 [0.04] 0.69
Age 13 [3.3] 14.4 [2.8] 0.29    
Disease duration in months 39 [34.2] 25.7 [20.4] 0.34    
Clinical features
 Nephritis (25) 8 (32) 17 (68) 1 0.43 [0.04] 0.42 [0.02] 0.74
  Class IV and/or V (16) 7 (43.7) 9 (56.2) 0.12 0.44 [0.04] 0.41 [0.02] 0.052
 Neuropsychiatric symptoms (8) 3 (37.5) 5 (62.5) 1 0.43 [0.04] 0.43 [0.04] 1
 SLEDAI-2 k > 5 (17) 9 (52.9) 8 (47) 0.04 0.44 [0.05] 0.41 [0.02] 0.04
 SLEDAI-2 k 10.9 [5,7] 6.4 [5.6] 0.05    
 SLICC/ACR DI > 0 (7) 2 (28) 5 (71) 1 0.43 [0.03] 0.43 [0.05] 0.83
 Uncontrolled hypertension 3 (75) 1(25) 0.08 0.46 [0.02] 0.43 [0.04] 0.04
 Menarche (15) 4 (26.7) 11 (73.3) 0.34 0.42 [0.03] 0.43 [0.05] 0.68
 Tanner stage ≥2 (27) 8 (29.6) 19 (70.3) 0.32 0,43 [0,04] 0,43  
 Short stature (5) 2 (40) 3 (60) 1 0.46 [0.03] 0.43 [0.04] 0.04
 Cumulative dose prednisone
   < 0.15 mg/kg/day (2) 0 2 (100) 1 0.39 [0.02) 0.43 [0.04] 0.12
  0.15–0.40 mg/kg/day (14) 5 (35.7) 9 (64.3) 1 0.44 [0.04] 0.42 [0.04] 0.38
   > 0.40 mg/kg/day (10) 3 (30) 7 (70) 1 0.42 [0.03] 0.44 [0.05] 0.74
 Actual prednisone dose (mg/ day) 0.4 [0.3] 0.5 [1] 0.64    
 Cumulative dose prednisone 22.6 [18.1] 16.8 [14.8] 0.46    
 Cyclosphosphamide (15) 5 (33) 10 (67) 1 0.44 [0.04] 0.42 [0.04] 0.14
 Azathioprine (9) 3 (33) 6 (67) 1 0.43 [0.03] 0.43 [0.05] 0.85
 Mycophenolate (8) 2 (25) 6 (75) 1 0.44 [0,05] 0.43 [0,04] 0.44
 Oral contraceptive use 1 (33.3) 2 (66.7) 1 0.44 [0.04] 0.42 [0.04] 0.42
Nutritional assessment
 Excess abdominal fat (WC) (13) 2 (15.4) 11 (84.6) 0.11 0.42 [0.04] 0.44 [0.04] 0.22
 Overweight (BMI) (5) 1 (20) 4 (80) 1 0.43 [0.07] 0.43 [0.04] 0.46
 Obesity (BMI) (4) 0 4 (100) 0.27 0.43 [0.02] 0.43 [0.04] 0.74
Bioimpedance
 Excess body fat (7) 3 (42.9) 4 (57.1) 0.33 0.42 [0.02] 0.43 [0.04] 0.65
Health eating index
 Poor diet – HEI < 65 (22) 8 (36.4) 14 (63.6) 0.63 0.43 [0.03] 0.44 [0.06] 0.89
 Diet in need to adequate (6) 1 (16.7) 5 (83.3) 0.62 0.44 [0.06] 0.43 [0.03] 0.89
  1. *Fisher and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. m media, mm millimeters, SD standard deviation, SLEDAI 2 K Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, SLICC/ACR DI Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index, CIMT carotid intima-media thickness, WC waist circumference, BMI body mass index, HEI healthy eating index