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Table 1 Baseline characteristics after matching for JIA and ADHD groups

From: Prevalence of co-existing autoimmune disease in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic <  18 years ≥ 18 years
MarketScan PharMetrics MarketScan PharMetrics
JIA (N = 8633) ADHD (N = 38,967) JIA (N = 9155) ADHD (N = 41,264) JIA (N = 5789) ADHD (N = 27,288) JIA (N = 5638) ADHD (N = 27,106)
Female 6173 (71.5) 26,933 (69.1) 6587 (71.9) 28,694 (69.5) 4506 (77.8) 21,096 (77.3) 4315 (76.5) 20,590 (76.0)
Age, mean (SD) 10.6 (4.5) 11.1 (3.9) 10.5 (4.5) 11.0 (3.9) 37.0 (16.5) 36.2 (15.4) 34.6 (14.7) 34.4 (14.3)
Medications
 bDMARD 1287 (14.9) 9 (<  0.1) 1485 (16.2) 9 (<  0.1) 1593 (27.5) 121 (0.4) 1614 (28.6) 129 (0.5)
 Non-bDMARD 2512 (29.1) 529 (1.4) 3127 (34.2) 534 (1.3) 2143 (37.0) 870 (3.2) 2266 (40.2) 845 (3.1)
 Corticosteroidsa 2984 (34.6) 7500 (19.2) 3367 (36.8) 4696 (11.4) 2681 (46.3) 7845 (28.7) 2712 (48.1) 8496 (31.3)
 NSAIDs 4090 (47.4) 3037 (7.8) 4812 (52.6) 9868 (23.9) 2528 (43.7) 7391 (27.1) 2634 (46.7) 8101 (29.9)
Comorbidities
 Multiple sclerosis 1 (<  0.1) 11 (<  0.1) 1 (<  0.1) 8 (<  0.1) 20 (0.3) 87 (0.3) 19 (0.3) 65 (0.2)
 Asthma 777 (9.0) 4130 (10.6) 887 (9.7) 5410 (13.1) 472 (8.2) 2279 (8.4) 486 (8.6) 2565 (9.5)
 Anxiety 295 (3.4) 6123 (15.7) 317 (3.5) 7665 (18.6) 555 (9.6) 8098 (29.7) 549 (9.7) 9185 (33.9)
 Depression 208 (2.4) 4478 (11.5) 214 (2.3) 5293 (12.8) 653 (11.3) 9469 (34.7) 622 (11.0) 9868 (36.4)
 Diabetes mellitus 92 (1.1) 240 (0.6) 84 (0.9) 259 (0.6) 440 (7.6) 1408 (5.2) 371 (6.6) 1146 (4.2)
 Anemia 498 (5.8) 540 (1.4) 479 (5.2) 741 (1.8) 948 (16.4) 1762 (6.5) 655 (11.6) 1674 (6.2)
 Hypertension 2 (<  0.1) 11 (<  0.1) 6 (0.1) 9 (<  0.1) 103 (1.8) 268 (1.0) 103 (1.8) 319 (1.2)
 Hyperlipidemia 174 (2.0) 987 (2.5) 202 (2.2) 1388 (3.4) 1162 (20.1) 5355 (19.6) 1023 (18.1) 5264 (19.4)
 Malignancy 56 (0.6) 128 (0.3) 49 (0.5) 136 (0.3) 278 (4.8) 856 (3.1) 162 (2.9) 702 (2.6)
CCI score, mean (SD) [40] 2.4 (0.6) 2.1 (0.4) 2.4 (0.6) 2.1 (0.5) 2.9 (1.0) 2.3 (0.7) 2.8 (0.9) 2.2 (0.7)
Autoimmune diseasesb
 0 4988 (57.8) 37,675 (96.7) 5194 (56.7) 39,680 (96.2) 1973 (34.1) 24,792 (90.9) 2029 (36.0) 24,739 (91.3)
 1 2830 (32.8) 1220 (3.1) 3075 (33.6) 1510 (3.7) 2749 (47.5) 2160 (7.9) 2641 (46.8) 2052 (7.6)
 2 659 (7.6) 63 (0.2) 745 (8.1) 67 (0.2) 796 (13.8) 283 (1.0) 722 (12.8) 261 (1.0)
 3 127 (1.5) 8 (<  0.1) 121 (1.3) 7 (<  0.1) 190 (3.3) 42 (0.2) 190 (3.4) 42 (0.2)
  > 3 29 (0.3) 1 (<  0.1) 20 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 81 (1.4) 11 (<  0.1) 56 (1.0) 12 (<  0.1)
Healthcare encountersc
 0–10 4927 (57.1) 22,969 (58.9) 3205 (35.0) 15,400 (37.3) 2713 (46.9) 13,157 (48.2) 1656 (29.4) 8139 (30.0)
 11–20 2353 (27.3) 9995 (25.6) 3352 (36.6) 14,630 (35.5) 1567 (27.1) 7352 (26.9) 1741 (30.9) 8371 (30.9)
 21–30 739 (8.6) 3235 (8.3) 1393 (15.2) 5930 (14.4) 730 (12.6) 3346 (12.3) 1008 (17.9) 4829 (17.8)
 31–40 294 (3.4) 1318 (3.4) 604 (6.6) 2607 (6.3) 371 (6.4) 1677 (6.1) 561 (10.0) 2655 (9.8)
 41–50 153 (1.8) 701 (1.8) 262 (2.9) 1150 (2.8) 183 (3.2) 821 (3.0) 273 (4.8) 1295 (4.8)
  > 50 167 (1.9) 749 (1.9) 339 (3.7) 1547 (3.7) 225 (3.9) 935 (3.4) 399 (7.1) 1817 (6.7)
  1. Data are shown as n (%) unless otherwise specified
  2. aBy any route of administration
  3. bIncludes all autoimmune diseases outlined in Supplementary Table 1, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and sarcoidosis
  4. cIn 1 year
  5. ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bDMARD biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index [40], JIA juvenile idiopathic arthritis, MarketScan Truven Health MarketScan® Commercial Database, NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, PharMetrics IMS PharMetrics database, SD standard deviation