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Table 2 Overview of cost and resource items reported in the 20 included articles

From: Seeking the state of the art in standardized measurement of health care resource use and costs in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a scoping review

Category Type of cost or resource use item Number of articles
N References
Medical costs Medication 16 [9, 32,33,34, 36,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44, 47,48,49]
 DMARDs – non biologic 11 [32, 38,39,40,41,42,43,44, 47,48,49]
  Methotrexate (tablets or subcutaneous) 8 [32, 39, 40, 43, 44, 47,48,49]
  Cyclosporin 3 [43, 47, 48]
  Hydroxychloroquine 3 [43, 47, 48]
  Sulphasalazine 3 [43, 47, 48]
  Leflunomide 3 [43, 47, 48]
  Other, or not specified 6 [38, 41,42,43, 47, 48]
 DMARDs - biologic 10 [32, 38,39,40, 42,43,44, 47,48,49]
  Etanercept 6 [39, 40, 44, 47,48,49]
  Abatacept 3 [32, 40, 49]
  Infliximab 3 [47,48,49]
  Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) (not further specified) 2 [38, 43]
  Other, or not specified 3 [32, 42, 49]
 Corticosteroids 6 [38, 42,43,44, 47, 48]
  Prednisolone 3 [43, 47, 48]
  Glucocorticoids (systemic) 3 [42, 44] [43]*
  Other, or not specified 3 [38, 47, 48]
 NSAIDs and analgesics 8 [38, 41,42,43,44, 47, 48] [39]*
 Joint injections 8 [32, 37,38,39, 44, 47, 48] [43]*
 Eye drops/ointments 3 [42, 47, 48]
 Premedication 2 [40, 49]
 Osteoporosis treatment/ prophylaxis 2 [41, 42]
 Gastroprotective agents 2 [41, 42]
 Other medication, or not specified 7 [9, 33, 34, 36, 38, 47, 48]
Outpatient and inpatient hospital visits 16 [9, 32,33,34, 36,37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 47,48,49,50]
 Outpatient stays/day-care/visits (including joint injection, and outpatient surgery) 16 [9, 32,33,34, 36,37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 47,48,49,50]
 Inpatient stays/inpatient treatment/surgery (including joint replacement) 13 [9, 32, 33, 37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 47, 48, 50]
 Acute (including emergency room visits) 6 [34, 36, 37, 40,41,42]
 Rehabilitation 5 [9, 34, 36, 41, 42]
Medical professional visits 14 [9, 32, 34, 36,37,38, 40,41,42, 44, 47,48,49,50]
 Rheumatology paediatric visit (or telephone consultation) 9 [32, 37, 38, 41, 42, 44, 47, 48, 50]
 Ophthalmologist 6 [32, 38, 42, 47, 48, 50]
 General practitioner visits 5 [32, 34, 36, 38, 50]
 Specialist nurse / district nurse 4 [32, 38, 47, 48]
 Nephrologist/endocrinologist 3 [38, 47, 48]
 Other, or not specified 5 [9, 38, 40, 49, 50]
Other medical visits (including paramedical care) 13 [32, 33, 35, 37,38,39, 41, 42, 44, 46,47,48, 50]
 Physiotherapist (at health centre or at home), including hydrotherapy 11 [32, 33, 37,38,39, 41, 42, 44, 47, 48, 50]
 Occupational therapist 7 [32, 38, 41, 42, 47, 48, 50]
 Podiatrist/orthotics 4 [32, 38, 47, 48]
 Psychologist/counsellor 4 [38, 47, 48, 50]
 Chiropractic 2 [35, 46]
 Other, or not specified 4 [35, 38, 42, 46]
Laboratory tests 14 [9, 32,33,34, 36, 38,39,40,41,42, 44, 47,48,49]
 Haemoglobin 4 [32, 38, 47, 48]
 Haematocrit 4 [32, 38, 47, 48]
 Platelets 4 [32, 38, 47, 48]
 White blood cell count 4 [32, 38, 47, 48]
 C-reactive protein (CRP) 3 [32, 47, 48]
 Liver function test 2 [32, 38]
 Tuberculosis screening 1 [49]
 Other, or not specified 12 [9, 32,33,34, 36, 39,40,41,42, 44, 47, 48]
Imaging 11 [9, 32,33,34, 36, 38, 40, 44, 47,48,49]
 Radiography (X-ray) 7 [32, 33, 38, 44, 47,48,49]
 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 5 [32, 38, 44, 47, 48]
 Ultrasound 5 [32, 38, 44, 47, 48]
 Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan 4 [32, 44, 47, 48]
 Other, or not specified 5 [9, 34, 36, 38, 40]
Splints and/or devices 11 [9, 33, 34, 36, 37, 40,41,42, 47, 48, 50]
 Orthopaedic devices (casts/splints/braces/ambulation aids wheelchair/stroller/walker frame) 8 [9, 33, 36, 37, 42, 47, 48, 50]
 Other, or not specified 5 [34, 37, 40,41,42]
Supplements and/or alternative medicine (e.g. vitamins, minerals, herbal medicine) 8 [35, 38, 41, 42, 46,47,48,49]
 Folic acid 3 [47,48,49]
 Other, or not specified 7 [35, 38, 41, 42, 46,47,48]
Drug administration costs 6 [32, 37, 39, 47,48,49]
 Administering joint injections (incl. appointment and/or anaesthesia) 4 [37, 39, 47, 48]
 Intravenous infusion (including bags and solutions) 3 [32, 37, 49]
 Other injections, which may include monitoring (by nurse/caregiver), and which may include training and/or caregiver time 3 [32, 39, 49]
 Other, or not specified 1 [49]
Overhead/fixed resources 1 [38]
Out-of-pocket patient/family costs Transportation costs 10 [9, 33, 34, 36, 37, 39, 41, 42, 44, 50]
 Transportation, non-medical (including toll) 7 [9, 33, 34, 37, 39, 41, 42]
 Transportation, medical 5 [9, 34, 37, 39, 42]
 Other, or not specified 3 [36, 44, 50]
(Other) out-of-pocket costs 9 [33, 35, 37, 39,40,41,42, 44, 50]*
 Home adaptations and special equipment (toilet seat appliance, bathtub or shower appliance, stair lift) 5 [33, 37, 41, 42, 50]
 Childcare for babysitting, also for other children (during medical visits/hospitalization of diseased child) 4 [33, 37, 42, 50]
 Caregivers’ accommodations (e.g. when child is hospitalized/receives injection) 4 [33, 37, 50] [39]*
 Extra telephone costs 3 [33, 37, 42]
 Parking (for hospital and other medical visits) 3 [33, 37, 50]
 Money spend on food during medical visits 2 [33, 37]
 Other, or not specified 3 [35] [40, 44]*
Social care services/home care/private and community services/ domestic help 4 [9, 34, 41, 42]
 Use of social care services (i.e. formal (paid) care) and professional caregivers, including home medical care 2 [9, 34]
 Use of private and community services/domestic help 2 [41, 42]
School costs 3 [33, 42, 50]
Productivity costs Productivity loss of caregivers (including informal caregiving) 14 [9, 33, 34, 36,37,38,39,40,41,42, 44, 45, 49, 50]*
 Work/sick leave due to child’s illness, time lost due to health care appointments and/or due to informal caregiving (absenteeism) 12 [9, 33, 34, 36,37,38,39, 42, 45, 49, 50] [41]*
 Cease employment/early retirement 3 [9, 34, 50]
 Other, or not specified (including reduced number of working hours, and presenteeism) 3 [50] [40, 44]*
Missed school days and productivity loss of patients 8 [9, 33, 34, 36, 40,41,42, 50]*
 Sick leave from school 4 [36, 42, 50] [41]*
 Sick leave from work 3 [9, 34, 41]
 Cease employment/early retirement 3 [9, 34, 41]
 Impact on future employment ability 3 [33, 36, 40]*
Missed school days of siblings 1 [50]
  1. This table shows the costs or resource use items that are either measured in the articles from the scoping review or mentioned as relevant items. A further specification of these items was shown in the second column, and the number of articles and accompanying references in which these items were measured are shown in columns three and four. In case items were only mentioned (e.g. in the study’s discussion section), this is indicated with an asterisk (*). Items that were only included in one study or not specified in detail, were summarized into the category ‘Other, or not specified’