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Table 1 Frequency of selected presenting clinical features of childhood-onset SLE

From: Cardiac tamponade as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report and review of the literature

  Balkaran et al [5] Spinosa et al. [6] Abdwani et al. [7] Hiraki et al. [8] Agarwal et al. [9] Gulay et al. [10]
Country Trinidad Brazil Oman Canada India Phillipines
Sample size 33 47 50 256 70 78
Clinical features (%)       
Malar rash 36 32 - 61 57 65
Musculoskeletal 70 32 76 61 66 41
Renal disease 64 38 64 45 77 63
Fever 76 34 62 39 94 -
Weight loss -* 26 52 29 30 -
Ulcers - 9 - 33 - 54
Alopecia - 17 36 22 46 40
Pleuritis/ Pleural effusion 9 17 26 12 3 14
Pericarditis/ Pericardial effusion 24 4 22 12 3 15
Neuropsychiatric - 36 18 16 21 31
  1. * denotes no data was presented for that clinical feature.