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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study patients with CRMO.

From: Dramatic pain relief and resolution of bone inflammation following pamidronate in 9 pediatric patients with persistent chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO)

Total number of patients 9
Sex (F:M) 5:4
Age at pamidronate treatment (y)* 12.9 (4.5–16.3)
Duration of symptoms before IVP (m)* 18 (6–36)
HLA-B27 positive (n) 3/9
VAS for pain pre-IVP (scale 0–10) 10/10 for all patients
Functional limitation pre-pamidronate  
   Prolonged school/daycare absences (n) 9/9
   Hospitalized for pain management (n) 4/9
   Limited use of upper limb (n) 3/9
   Difficulty weight bearing (n); requiring crutches (n) 5/9; 2/9
   Bedridden from spinal/leg pain (n) 2/9
Extra-osseus manifestations at baseline  
   Psoriasis/palmoplantar pustulosis/acne 0/9
   Synovitis/inflammatory bowel disease 0/9
Number of patients with elevated ESR at baseline 6/9
   ESR value (range) at baseline (normal < 10 mm/Hg)* 23.7 (3–52 mm/Hg)
Bone involvement pre-IVP as documented by MRI  
   Number of affected sites* 3.5 (2–9)
   Clavicle (n) 2/9
   Sacroiliac joint region (n) 2/9
   Distal fibula (n) 2/9
   Distal femur (n) 4/9
   Vertebrae (n; range for number of involved vertebrae) 2/9 (3–9)
   Distal tibia (n) 2/9
   Proximal humerus (n) 1/9
   Distal radius (n) 1/9
Clinically evident adjacent soft tissue swelling pre-pamidronate  
   Number of patients 5/9
Bone histopathology  
   Number of patients with bone biopsies** (n) 9/9
   Active inflammation only (n) 5/9
   Chronic inflammation only (n) 1/9
   Active and chronic inflammation (n) 3/9
   Increased bone resorption and osteoclasts (n) 1/9
   Necrotic bone (n) 2/9
   Reactive new bone (n) 1/9
Previous treatment pre-IVP  
   Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n)*** 9/9
   Sulfasalazine (50 mg/kg/day) (n) 1/9
   Prednisone (oral, 10 mg/day) (n) 1/9
   Codeine (n) 9/9
   Fentanyl (n) 3/9
   Morphine (n) 1/9
   Ketorolac (n) 1/9
   Amitriptyline (n) 1/9
   Surgical courettage (n) 2/9
  1. CRMO = chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis.
  2. *Data is represented as median (range).
  3. ** The tissues derived from these biopsies were fixed in neutral-buffered formalin, decalcified with 8% formic acid, and processed routinely with paraffin embedding. These biopsies were performed at the initial presentation with bone pain to rule out infection/malignancy.
  4. *** Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs included the following: naproxen sodium [up to 15 mg/kg/day], celecoxib [up to 200 mg/day], ibuprofen [up to 10 mg/kg/dose 4 times daily]
  5. y = years.
  6. m = months.
  7. VAS = visual analogue scale for pain.
  8. n = number of patients.
  9. ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  10. IVP = intravenous pamidronate.