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Table 1 Prevalence of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) radiographic damage, symptoms, and physical exam findings in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): results from selected studies.

From: The temporomandibular joint in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: frequently used and frequently arthritic

Reference Study Sample Inclusion Criteria* & Study Design JIA Type Imaging Modality TMJ Damage** TMJ Symptoms Abnormal TMJ Exam
[9] N: 249
Female: 66%
- Suspected TMJ involvement
- Cross-sectional
NA OPT Overall 28.9%
Female 75%
10.8% < 40%
[12] N: 20
Female: 95%
Mean age: 24.5 years
Mean age JIA onset: 5.3 years
- Micrognathia
- Cross-sectional
Multiple OPT 75% (defined as complete resorption of the condylar head) 65% (at anytime during JIA course) 55%
[16] N: 15
Mean age: 12 years
- JIA duration ≤ 3 years; Age ≥ 8 years
- Prospective cohort
NA OPT;
MRI with gadolinium
87% (MRI)
40% (OPT)
3.5% 60%
[4] N: 169
Female: 67% female
Mean age: 9.8 years
Mean age disease onset: 5.4 years
- Consecutive referrals to an orthodontic clinic
- Cross-sectional
Multiple OPT Female 73.3%
Polyarticular 65.8%
Oligoarticular 44.5%
Systemic 42.9%
ANA+ 55.1%
HLA-B27+ 38.5%
NA NA
[10] N: 97
Female: 62%
- Routine referrals to an orthodontic clinic
- Cross-sectional
Multiple OPT 47%
Oligoarticular 39%
RF-polyarticular 59%
RF+ polyarticlar 33%
Systemic 67%
Enthesitis related arthritis 13%
Psoriatic 33%
Other 50%
9–18% 16–39%
[6] N: 46
Female: 63%
Median age: 9.33 years
- Consecutive children consented to OPT
- Cross-sectional
Multiple OPT 78% 70% (signs symptoms reported together) NA
[15] N: 66;
Female: 59.1%
Mean age: 11.9 years
- Inclusion criteria NA
- Cross-sectional
Oligoarticular Polyarticular OPT Polyarticular 75%, Oligoarticular 20% NA NA
[17] N: 46
Female: 59%
Median age: 12.7 years Median age JIA onset: 4.5 years
- Inclusion criteria NA
- Cross-sectional
Oligoarticular Polyarticular Systemic (polyarticular course) MRI with gadolinium 32% (abnormal condyle)
45% (pannus)
5.5–8.3% 9% (decreased mouth opening)
[18] N: 32
Female: 78% female
Mean age: 8.6 years
- Newly diagnosed JIA
- Cross-sectional
Multiple MRI with gadolinium 75% (effusion or synovial thickening)
69% (condylar changes)
53% (both)
19% 41%
  1. JIA: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, OPT: Orthopantomogram, MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging, NA: Not available.
  2. *All studies required diagnosis of juvenile arthritis for inclusion.
  3. Multiple indicates > 3 JIA types represented.
  4. **Percentages are based on the number of children with the specified characteristic.