IL-17A and Th17 associated cytokine measurement of the cell culture supernatant from CD3/CD28 activated PBMCs. (A) PBMCs from JSLE (n = 7) and control (n = 6) patients were stimulated for 2 days using CD3/CD28 activation beads and IL-17A levels measured in culture supernatants. JSLE patients had a significantly increased level of IL-17A secretion (p = 0.022). (B) Cell culture supernatants from JSLE (n = 9) and control (n = 10) stimulated PBMCs were analysed by bioplex for Th17 associated cytokines. The cytokine IL-6 which is associated with the generation of Th17 cells from naïve T cells was increased in JSLE PBMCs compared to controls (p = 0.028). Cytokines produced by Th17 cells such as IL-17 F (p = 0.50), IL-21 (p = 0.003) and IL-22 (p = 0.43) were also increased in JSLE PBMCs compared to controls. Data are shown as the mean ± SEM and a Mann–Whitney U test was performed to determine significance values.