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Table 4 Musculoskeletal abnormalities detected by pGALS in MPS attenuated type I

From: Assessment of musculoskeletal abnormalities in children with mucopolysaccharidoses using pGALS

Manoeuvre tested pGALS instruction MPS Ia (n = 8)
Shoulder abduction, external rotation Hands behind neck 24/24 (100%)
Shoulder flexion Reach arms up 23/24 (96%)
Elbow extension Reach up 17/24 (71%)
Wrist flexion Hands together back to back 17/24 (71%)
Wrist extension Hands palm to palm 16/24 (67%)
MCP, DIP, PIP extension Hands and wrists together 16/24 (67%)
Gait Observe patient walking 11/17 (65%)
TMJ excursion Open mouth wide and try to put 3 fingers inside 15/24 (62%)
Spinal deformity   7/19 (56%)
Forward flexion of spine Bend forwards. Observe curvature of spine from all sides 10/19 (53%)
Neck extension Look up to the ceiling 12/23 (52%)
Cervical spine lateral flexion Touch ear to shoulder 12/23 (52%)
MCP/DIP/PIP extension Hands out in front 11/22 (50%)
Elbow extension Hands out in front 8/16 (50%)
Ankle dorsiflexion Walk on heels 9/18 (50%)
MCP/DIP/PIP flexion Make a fist 10/24 (42%)
Opposition of thumb and 3 rd -5 th fingers Touch tips of fingers with thumb 10/24 (42%)
Elbow flexion Put hands behind neck 5/12 (42%)
Forearm supination Turn hand over 6/18 (33%)
Knee extension Bring ankle up to bottom 5/15 (33%)
Knee flexion 3/15 (20%)
Opposition of thumb and index finger Touch tip of finger with thumb 5/24 (21%)
Elbow flexion Put hands and wrists together 4/24 (17%)
Ankle plantar flexion Walk on tip-toes 2/18 (11%)