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  1. For reasons poorly understood, and despite the availability of biological medications blocking IL-1 and IL-6 that have markedly improved overall disease control, children with Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arth...

    Authors: Scott W. Canna, Grant S. Schulert, Adriana de Jesus, Alex Pickering, Hermine Brunner, Massimo Gadina, Stewart Levine, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Jonathan Boutelle, Rashmi Sinha, Fabrizio DeBenedetti and Alexei Grom
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18(Suppl 1):53

    This article is part of a Supplement: Volume 18 Supplement 1

  2. Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limiting systemic vasculitis that predominately affects children. Neurological involvement is a known complication of KD, however, its association with KD severity remai...

    Authors: Xiaoliang Liu, Kaiyu Zhou, Yimin Hua, Mei Wu, Lei Liu, Shuran Shao and Chuan Wang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:61
  3. There is increasing concern about the emerging global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) burden. The focus has mainly been on NCDs in adults but it is important that MSK morbidity in both children and adults is ...

    Authors: Helen E. Foster, Christiaan Scott, Carl J. Tiderius and Matthew B. Dobbs
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:60
  4. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood that often persists into adulthood and can result in significant long-term morbidity. As a long lasting chronic infla...

    Authors: Inmaculada Concepción Aranda-Valera, Iván Arias de la Rosa, Rosa Roldán-Molina, María del Carmen Ábalos-Aguilera, Carmen Torres-Granados, Alejandra Patiño-Trives, María Luque-Tevar, Alejandro Ibáñez-Costa, Rocío Guzmán-Ruiz, María del Mar Malagón, Alejandro Escudero-Contreras, Chary López-Pedrera, Eduardo Collantes-Estévez and Nuria Barbarroja
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:59
  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with various clinical manifestations involving multiple organ systems. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE have been associated with increased mor...

    Authors: Alexandra Theisen, Paroma Bose, Christina Knight and Melissa Oliver
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:58
  6. Inflammatory arthritis in children with Down syndrome (DS) was first described in 1984 and is now termed Down syndrome-associated arthritis (DA). Studies have shown that DA is under-recognized with a 19-month ...

    Authors: Anna Nicek, Nasreen Talib, Daniel Lovell, Chelsey Smith, Mara L. Becker and Jordan T. Jones
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:57
  7. Hyperferritinemic syndromes are systemic inflammatory disorders characterized by a dysfunctional immune response, which leads to excessive activation of the monocyte-macrophage system with hypercytokinemia and...

    Authors: Riccardo Papa, Valentina Natoli, Roberta Caorsi, Francesca Minoia, Marco Gattorno and Angelo Ravelli
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:56
  8. FBLIM1 gene has been recently demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of bone sterile inflammation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of FBLIM1 gene variants in a cohort of 80 Italian pat...

    Authors: Adamo Pio d’Adamo, Anna Monica Bianco, Giovanna Ferrara, Martina La Bianca, Antonella Insalaco, Alberto Tommasini, Manuela Pardeo, Marco Cattalini, Francesco La Torre, Martina Finetti, Clotilde Alizzi, Gabriele Simonini, Virginia Messia, Serena Pastore, Rolando Cimaz, Marco Gattorno…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:55
  9. Sacroiliitis is commonly seen in enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA), a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Sacroiliitis is characterized by the inflammation of the sacroiliac (SI) joints (+/− adjac...

    Authors: Racha Chamlati, Bairbre Connolly, Ronald Laxer, Jennifer Stimec, Jyoti Panwar, Shirley Tse, Prakash Muthusami, Joao Amaral, Michael Temple and Dimitri A. Parra
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:52
  10. Recurrent pericarditis (RP) is a complication (15–30%) of acute pericarditis with an unknown etiology. Treatment regimen consists of a combination of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and colchici...

    Authors: Sara Signa, Matteo D’Alessandro, Rita Consolini, Angela Miniaci, Marta Bustaffa, Chiara Longo, Maria A. Tosca, Martina Bizzi, Roberta Caorsi, Leonardo Oliveira Mendonça, Andrea Pession, Angelo Ravelli and Marco Gattorno
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:51
  11. Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a major source of morbidity and disability. There is a lack of global comparable data on the burden of MSK conditions in children and young people. Our aim was to estimate ...

    Authors: Mona Dave, Judith Rankin, Mark Pearce and Helen E. Foster
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:49
  12. Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, and is steadily increasing in prevalence in East Asia. KD is often complicated by coronary artery damage, including dilatation ...

    Authors: Jinxin Wang, Huiqiao Chen, Hongying Shi, Xuting Zhang, Yiping Shao, Biyao Hang, Zhipeng Xu, Xing Rong, Maoping Chu and Huixian Qiu
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:48
  13. To initiate the development of a machine learning algorithm capable of comparing segments of pre and post pamidronate whole body MRI scans to assess treatment response and to compare the results of this algori...

    Authors: Chandrika S. Bhat, Mark Chopra, Savvas Andronikou, Suvadip Paul, Zach Wener-Fligner, Anna Merkoulovitch, Izidora Holjar-Erlic, Flavia Menegotto, Ewan Simpson, David Grier and Athimalaipet V. Ramanan
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:47
  14. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 appear to oppose each other during the process of bone formation, whereas few studies exist on the interaction between CNP ...

    Authors: Wei Xia Chen, Hui Hui Liu, Rui Xue Li, Goshgar Mammadov, Jing Jing Wang, Fei Fei Liu, Sama Samadli, Yang Fang Wu, Dong Dong Zhang, Huang Huang Luo and Peng Hu
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:46
  15. Juvenile Sjögren’s Syndrome (jSS) is a rare phenomenon that may appear as primary jSS or associated with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and other autoimmune diseases as secondary jSS. With currently no...

    Authors: Manuela Krumrey-Langkammerer and Johannes-Peter Haas
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:44
  16. Many autoimmune diseases share common pathogenic mechanisms, cytokine pathways and systemic inflammatory cascades; however, large studies quantifying the co-existence of autoimmune diseases in patients with ju...

    Authors: Teresa A. Simon, Gowri Priya Harikrishnan, Hugh Kawabata, Sanket Singhal, Hermine I. Brunner and Daniel J. Lovell
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:43
  17. Arthritis is often an underestimated extraintestinal manifestation in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including sacroiliitis, whose early signs are well detectable at magnetic resonance imaging (MR...

    Authors: Teresa Giani, Azzurra Bernardini, Massimo Basile, Marco Di Maurizo, Anna Perrone, Sara Renzo, Viola Filistrucchi, Rolando Cimaz and Paolo Lionetti
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:42
  18. The reporting quality of physical activity (PA) programs in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the management of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) remains unknown. This study aimed to assess and compare...

    Authors: Teresa-Rose Kattackal, Sabrina Cavallo, Lucie Brosseau, Aditi Sivakumar, Michael J. Del Bel, Michelle Dorion, Erin Ueffing and Karine Toupin-April
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:41
  19. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis of childhood. It has a characteristic rash described as palpable purpura that most frequently affects the distal lower extremities and buttocks. HSP...

    Authors: Christopher Zheng, Julie Childers, Egla Rabinovich and Kristina Nazareth-Pidgeon
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:40
  20. Sjögren syndrome (SS) is a rare disease in pediatrics, and little attention has been paid to the clinical feature in these patients. To date, there are few cases concern about neurological and nephrological di...

    Authors: Jingya Zhao, Qin Chen, Yunyun Zhu, Meng Zhao, Jun Liu, Zhenzhong Zhang and Xiaoting Gong
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:39
  21. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) has many clinical features overlapping with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), which is caused by mutations in MEFV gene. And FMF patients were easily misdiagnosed a...

    Authors: Linqing Zhong, Wei Wang, Ji Li, Mingsheng Ma, Lijuan Gou, Changyan Wang, Zhongxun Yu, Tiannan Zhang, Yanqing Dong, Qijiao Wei and Hongmei Song
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:38
  22. STING-associated vasculopathy with onset in infancy (SAVI) is a type 1 interferonopathy manifesting as a pulmonary and vascular syndrome resulting from gain-of-function mutations in TMEM173, the gene encoding STI...

    Authors: S. L. N. Clarke, L. Robertson, G. I. Rice, L. Seabra, T. N. Hilliard, Y. J. Crow and A. V. Ramanan
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:37
  23. In Childhood-Onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (cSLE), poor medication adherence rates are very high. Interventions targeting this problem in cSLE are limited thus effective interventions are needed. The obje...

    Authors: Onengiya Harry, Lori E. Crosby, Constance Mara, Tracy V. Ting, Jennifer L. Huggins and Avani C. Modi
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:36
  24. On March 11th, 2020 the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. The infection, transmitted by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCov), was first discovered in December 2019, in Wuhan, Hubei P...

    Authors: Francesco Licciardi, Teresa Giani, Letizia Baldini, Ennio Giulio Favalli, Roberto Caporali and Rolando Cimaz
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:35
  25. In 2018, an international Task Force formulated recommendations for treating Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) to target. The Task Force has not yet resolved three issues. The first issue is the lack of a si...

    Authors: Casper G. Schoemaker, Joost F. Swart and Nico M. Wulffraat
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:34
  26. Having Juvenile idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) has widespread implications for a person’s life. Patients have to deal with recurring arthritis, characterized by pain often accompanied by a loss of energy. Since JI...

    Authors: E. Charlotte van Gulik, Floris Verkuil, Anouk M. Barendregt, Dieneke Schonenberg-Meinema, Amara Nassar-Sheikh Rashid, Taco W. Kuijpers, J. Merlijn van den Berg and Jan L. Hoving
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:33
  27. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome is the most common periodic fever syndrome in children. There is considerable heterogeneity in management strategies and...

    Authors: Gil Amarilyo, Deborah Rothman, Kalpana Manthiram, Kathryn M. Edwards, Suzanne C. Li, Gary S. Marshall, Cagri Yildirim-Toruner, Kathleen Haines, Polly J. Ferguson, Geraldina Lionetti, Julie Cherian, Yongdong Zhao, Patricia DeLaMora, Grant Syverson, Simona Nativ, Marinka Twilt…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:31
  28. To assess EDI-OCT (enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography) of choroid for inflammatory signs in children with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) and adenosine deaminase-2 deficiency (DADA-2).

    Authors: Ata BAYTAROĞLU, Sibel KADAYIFÇILAR, Abdullah AĞIN, Özge DELİKTAŞ, Selcan DEMİR, Yelda BİLGİNER, Jale KARAKAYA, Seza ÖZEN and Bora ELDEM
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:29
  29. Only a small percentage of pediatric chest pain is of cardiac origin and the most common detected cause is musculoskeletal. Among musculoskeletal causes, acute chest pain is better described, with the causes o...

    Authors: Basak Mansiz-Kaplan, F. Figen Ayhan, Mihriban Cagli, Fatih Atik and İbrahim Ece
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:28
  30. Transition from pediatric to adult care is a vulnerable time for youth with chronic diseases. In youth with rheumatic disease, studies show high rates of loss to follow up and increased disease activity. Howev...

    Authors: Paul T. Jensen, Keumseok Koh, Rebecca E. Cash, Stacy P. Ardoin and Ayaz Hyder
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:27
  31. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis (JIA-U) is a serious condition associated with the risk of blindness. However, pediatric rheumatologists rarely encounter cases of blindness, because most patie...

    Authors: Susumu Yamazaki, Asami Shimbo, Yuko Akutsu, Hiroshi Takase, Tomohiro Morio and Masaaki Mori
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:26
  32. Children with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), the most common inflammatory myopathy of childhood, may be at increased risk of premature atherosclerosis given a host of traditional and non-traditional risk fact...

    Authors: Dawn M. Wahezi, Emily J. Liebling, Jaeun Choi, Marija Dionizovik-Dimanovski, Qi Gao and Jillian Parekh
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:25
  33. The calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (CaN-NFAT) signaling pathway had been found to be associated with Kawasaki disease (KD) susceptibility and coronary artery aneurysm formation as a contri...

    Authors: Yameng Sun, Jingjing Liu, Zhimin Geng, Yijing Tao, Fenglei Zheng, Ying Wang, Songling Fu, Wei Wang, Chunhong Xie, Yiying Zhang and Fangqi Gong
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:23
  34. Early diagnosis and treatment of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is essential to optimize outcomes. Wait times (WTs) to consultation with a pediatric rheumatologist consultation is a Canadian quality measu...

    Authors: Claire E. H. Barber, Cheryl Barnabe, Susanne Benseler, Ricky Chin, Nicole Johnson, Nadia Luca, Paivi Miettunen, Marinka Twilt, Dwaraka Veeramreddy, Natalie J. Shiff and Heinrike Schmeling
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:22
  35. JIA studies demonstrate that there is a “window of opportunity” early in the disease course during which appropriate management improves outcomes. No data is available regarding patients’ pathway, before first...

    Authors: Manjari Agarwal, Caroline Freychet, Sumidha Jain, Abhay Shivpuri, Anju Singh, Veronique Dinand and Sujata Sawhney
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:21
  36. Osteoporosis incidence in children is increasing due to the increased survival rate of patients suffering from chronic diseases and the increased use of drugs that can damage bones.

    Authors: Rocío Galindo-Zavala, Rosa Bou-Torrent, Berta Magallares-López, Concepción Mir-Perelló, Natalia Palmou-Fontana, Belén Sevilla-Pérez, Marta Medrano-San Ildefonso, Mª. Isabel González-Fernández, Almudena Román-Pascual, Paula Alcañiz-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos Nieto-Gonzalez, Mireia López-Corbeto and Jenaro Graña-Gil
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:20
  37. Patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA), receiving disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs with immunosuppressive effects, may be at increased risk of vaccine-preventable infecti...

    Authors: Hermine I. Brunner, Nikolay Tzaribachev, Gabriel Vega Cornejo, Rik Joos, Elisabeth Gervais, Rolando Cimaz, Inmaculada Calvo Penadés, Rubén Cuttica, Thomas Lutz, Pierre Quartier, Yash Gandhi, Marleen Nys, Robert Wong, Alberto Martini, Daniel J. Lovell and Nicolino Ruperto
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:19
  38. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the colour representation of the graph is not correct in Figure 6 legend.

    Authors: Wan-Fang Lee, Chao-Yi Wu, Huang-Yu Yang, Wen-I Lee, Li-Chen Chen, Liang-Shiou Ou and Jing-Long Huang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:18

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:69

  39. Rare autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) including Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndrome (CAPS), Tumor Necrosis Receptor-Associated Periodic Syndrome (TRAPS) and Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency Syndrome (MKD)/ Hype...

    Authors: Sandra Hansmann, Elke Lainka, Gerd Horneff, Dirk Holzinger, Nikolaus Rieber, Annette F. Jansson, Angela Rösen-Wolff, Gabi Erbis, Martina Prelog, Juergen Brunner, Susanne M. Benseler and Jasmin B. Kuemmerle-Deschner
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:17
  40. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the corresponding author’s given name is spelled incorrectly. The given name, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Mark Connelly and Jennifer E. Weiss
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:16

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:72

  41. Neurological involvement has been reported in up to 80% of adults with Primary Sjogren’s syndrome (pSS) with psychiatric abnormalities including anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunction being common. Psy...

    Authors: Erin K. Hammett, Cristina Fernandez-Carbonell, Courtney Crayne, Alexis Boneparth, Randy Q. Cron and Suhas M. Radhakrishna
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:15
  42. Following publication of the original article [1], we have been notified that the author Joan Calzada should not have been included to the team of authors. The authors’ team, thus, should be as follows:

    Authors: Ivan Foeldvari, Jens Klotsche, Gabriele Simonini, Clive Edelsten, Sheila T. Angeles-Han, Regitze Bangsgaard, Joke de Boer, Gabriele Brumm, Rosa Bou Torrent, Tamas Constantin, Cinzia DeLibero, Jesus Diaz, Valeria Maria Gerloni, Margarida Guedes, Arnd Heiligenhaus, Kaisu Kotaniemi…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:14

    The original article was published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2019 17:66

  43. Treatment of rheumatic diseases in children often includes long-term needle injections, which represent a risk for refusing medication based on potential needle-fear. How nurses manage children’s fear and pain...

    Authors: Kari Sørensen, Helge Skirbekk, Gunnvald Kvarstein and Hilde Wøien
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:13
  44. Methotrexate (MTX) therapy has proven to be a successful and safe treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Despite the high efficacy rates of MTX, treatment outcomes are often complicated by burdenso...

    Authors: Rosanne M. Smits, Dieuwke S. Veldhuijzen, Henriet van Middendorp, Petra C. E. Hissink Muller, Wineke Armbrust, Elizabeth Legger, Nico M. Wulffraat and Andrea W. M. Evers
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2020 18:12

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