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  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasound (MSUS) has been used worldwide in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but is beginning to play an increasing role in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The ...

    Authors: Yung-Hsien Huang, Ya-Chiao Hu, Chun-Hua Liao, Bor-Luen Chiang, Cheng-Hsun Lu, Ko-Jen Li and Yao-Hsu Yang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:60
  2. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) drugs have improved the prognosis for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) significantly. However, evidence for individual treatment decisions based on serum anti-TNF drug level...

    Authors: A. Nassar-Sheikh Rashid, D. Schonenberg-Meinema, S. C. Bergkamp, S. Bakhlakh, A. de Vries, T. Rispens, T. W. Kuijpers, G. Wolbink and J. M. van den Berg
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:59
  3. Lupus podocytopathy (LP) is a renal affection described in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with nephrotic range proteinuria, characterized by diffuse foot process effacement without immune deposits...

    Authors: Hend H. Abdelnabi
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:57
  4. Juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in children and adolescents. Both the disease and its treatment with glucocorticoids may negatively impact bone formation. In ...

    Authors: Henriette Schermacher Marstein, Kristin Godang, Berit Flatø, Ivar Sjaastad, Jens Bollerslev and Helga Sanner
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:56
  5. Alterations in the composition of the fecal microbiota in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been observed in several studies, but it has not been determined whether the standard treatment ...

    Authors: Anders Öman, Johan Dicksved, Lars Engstrand and Lillemor Berntson
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:55
  6. Biallelic loss-of-function variants in NCF1 lead to reactive oxygen species deficiency and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Heterozygosity for the p.Arg90His variant in NCF1 has been associated with susceptib...

    Authors: Oskar Schnappauf, Liane Heale, Dilan Dissanayake, Wanxia L. Tsai, Massimo Gadina, Thomas L. Leto, Daniel L. Kastner, Harry L. Malech, Douglas B. Kuhns, Ivona Aksentijevich and Ronald M. Laxer
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:54
  7. The involvement of the central nervous system is not rare in rheumatoid diseases. Even though children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may face academic difficulties until adulthood, very few studies ...

    Authors: Marine Granjon, Odile Rohmer, Nadège Doignon-Camus, Maria Popa-Roch, Christine Pietrement and Nathalie Gavens
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:53
  8. Involving the end-users of scientific research (patients, carers and clinicians) in setting research priorities is important to formulate research questions that truly make a difference and are in tune with th...

    Authors: Anouk Verwoerd, Wineke Armbrust, Katherine Cowan, Lotte van den Berg, Joke de Boer, Sanne Bookelman, Marjan Britstra, Jeannette Cappon, Maria Certan, Christine Dedding, Karin van den Haspel, Petra Hissink Muller, Karin Jongsma, Otto Lelieveld, Jorg van Loosdregt, Wendy Olsder…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:52
    • Context: Methotrexate (MTX) is a cornerstone in the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). MTX treatment is commonly associated with nause...

    Authors: Nini Kyvsgaard, Torben Stamm Mikkelsen, Thomas D. Als, Anne Estmann Christensen, Thomas J. Corydon and Troels Herlin
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:51
  9. Non-infectious uveitis is a well-reported cause of blindness in more developed countries, however data from sub-Saharan Africa is lacking. Here we aim to describe the diseases associated with paediatric non-in...

    Authors: Waheba Slamang, Christopher Tinley, Nicola Brice and Christiaan Scott
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:50
  10. The early detection of uveitis associated with systemic inflammatory disease in children is important for proper treatment and prognosis. However, the diagnosis may be delayed because of difficulties in childh...

    Authors: Yoonkyeom Shin, Ji-Man Kang, Junwon Lee, Christopher Seungkyu Lee, Sung Chul Lee and Jong Gyun Ahn
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:48
  11. Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs) are associated with a significant sex-bias, which becomes more evident post-puberty. This systematic review aims to elucidate the bidirectional relationship between puberty...

    Authors: Nina M. de Gruijter, Meena Naja, Hannah Peckham, Anna Radziszewska, Matthew Kinsella, James Glenister, Elizabeth C. Rosser, Gary E. Butler, Elizabeth C. Jury and Coziana Ciurtin
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:47
  12. Biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) and Janus Kinase (JAK) inhibitors are prescribed in adult and paediatric rheumatology. Due to age-dependent changes, disease course, and pharmacokinetic...

    Authors: Tatjana Welzel, Carolyn Winskill, Nancy Zhang, Andreas Woerner and Marc Pfister
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:46

    The Correction to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:124

  13. Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is an autoinflammatory disease affecting bone with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity and variable association with other autoinflammatory conditions. Disease pathog...

    Authors: Daire O’Leary, Anthony G. Wilson, Emma-Jane MacDermott, Clodagh Lowry and Orla G. Killeen
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:45
  14. Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a rare autoinflammatory disease caused by mutations in the ADA2 gene. Few Chinese cases have been reported. We describe and compare the clinical features, genotyp...

    Authors: Wei Wang, Tiannan Zhang, Wenjie Zheng, Linqing Zhong, Lin Wang, Ji Li, Qian Liu, Yanqing Dong and Hongmei Song
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:44
  15. Many children and young people with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) experience delay in diagnosis and access to right care. The reasons for delay are multi-factorial and influenced by patient and family, c...

    Authors: Tim Rapley, Carl May, Nicola Smith and Helen E. Foster
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:43
  16. The aim of this study was to: (i) describe the abnormalities seen on brain imaging in a group of children with en coup de sabre (EDCS) with/without Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS); and (ii) identify clinical pred...

    Authors: Harry Knights, Elizabeth Minas, Faraan Khan, Lindsay Shaw, Muthana Al Obaidi, Kshitij Mankad and Despina Eleftheriou
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:42
  17. Oligoarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (oligoJIA) is the most commonly diagnosed category of chronic arthritis in children. Nevertheless, there are no evidence- based guidelines for its treatment, in par...

    Authors: A. Raab, T. Kallinich, D. Huscher, I. Foeldvari, F. Weller-Heinemann, F. Dressler, J. B. Kuemmerle-Deschner, A. Klein and G. Horneff
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:41
  18. Pediatric patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are at risk for a lower health-related quality of life compared to their healthy peers. Remote monitoring of health-related quality of life using ele...

    Authors: Martijn J. H. Doeleman, Sytze de Roock, Nathan Buijsse, Mark Klein, Gouke J. Bonsel, Vicki Seyfert-Margolis, Joost F. Swart and Nico M. Wulffraat
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:40
  19. It is currently unknown whether patients with childhood-onset Takayasu disease (c-TA) are prone to physical inactivity and poor aerobic capacity. In this study, we assessed physical activity levels and cardior...

    Authors: Camilla Astley, Saulo Gil, Gleice Clemente, Maria Teresa Terreri, Clovis Artur Silva, Lucia Maria Arruda Campos, Nadia Emi Aikawa, Ana Lúcia de Sá Pinto, Rosa Maria R. Pereira, Hamilton Roschel and Bruno Gualano
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:39
  20. Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is a complex disease with dysregulation of the innate immune system driven by cytokines. A major role is ascribed to interleukin-1β (IL-1β), supporting the autoinf...

    Authors: Elke Lainka, Melanie Baehr, Bernadette Raszka, Johannes-Peter Haas, Boris Hügle, Nadine Fischer, Dirk Foell, Claas Hinze, Elisabeth Weissbarth-Riedel, Tilmann Kallinich, Gerd Horneff, Daniel Windschall, Eggert Lilienthal, Tim Niehues, Ulrich Neudorf, Rainer Berendes…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:38
  21. Systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) is an autoimmune connective tissue disease that affects the skin and subcutaneous tissue, in addition to the internal organs of the whole body. Onset in childhood is uncom...

    Authors: Riki Tanaka, Yumi Tani, Yoichiro Kaburaki, Manao Kinoshita, Yasushi Kawaguchi, Yuka Okazaki, Masataka Kuwana, Masayoshi Harigai, Satoru Nagata and Takako Miyamae
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:37
  22. Oligo-articular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (Oligo JIA) is the most common subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Intra-articular corticosteroid (IAC) injection is a mainstay treatment of oligo JIA provid...

    Authors: Rana Harhay, Wajiha Jeelani, Barbine Tchamba Agbor Agbor, Teresa Hennon, Brian H. Wrotniak and Rabheh Abdul-Aziz
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:36
  23. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. The present study determined the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in childhood-onset SLE using the carotid i...

    Authors: Priscila B. S. Medeiros, Roberta G. Salomão, Sara R. Teixeira, Diane M. Rassi, Luciana Rodrigues, Davi C. Aragon, Priscila G. Fassini, Fábio V. Ued, Rita C. Tostes, Jacqueline P. Monteiro, Virgínia P. L. Ferriani and Luciana M. de Carvalho
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:35
  24. Clinical phenotypes and outcomes in juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) have been defined by various myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs). One of the recently described MSAs associated with DM is targeted agains...

    Authors: Takayuki Kishi, Yumi Tani, Naoko Okiyama, Kiyoshi Mizuochi, Yuki Ichimura, Masayoshi Harigai, Satoru Nagata and Takako Miyamae
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:34
  25. To study fatigue in young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) 18 years after disease onset, and to compare with controls.

    Authors: Ellen Dalen Arnstad, Mia Glerup, Veronika Rypdal, Suvi Peltoniemi, Anders Fasth, Susan Nielsen, Marek Zak, Kristiina Aalto, Lillemor Berntson, Ellen Nordal, Troels Herlin, Pål Richard Romundstad and Marite Rygg
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:33
  26. Despite timely administration of IVIG, some patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) develop rapidly progressive or giant coronary artery aneurysms (CAA).

    Authors: Olha Halyabar, Kevin G. Friedman, Robert P. Sundel, Annette L. Baker, Margaret H. Chang, Patrick W. Gould, Jane W. Newburger and Mary Beth F. Son
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:31
  27. Pediatric rheumatic disease (PRD) patients and their caregivers face a number of challenges, including the consequences of the PRD in patients and the impact on multiple dimensions of the caregivers’ daily liv...

    Authors: Brenda de Jesús Fortuna-Reyna, Ingris Peláez-Ballestas, Fernando García-Rodríguez, Enrique Faugier-Fuentes, Samara Mendieta-Zerón, Ana Victoria Villarreal-Treviño, Sara Georgina Rosiles-De la Garza, Greta Reyes-Cordero, Sol Jiménez-Hernández, Jessica Haydee Guadarrama-Orozco, Manuel Enrique de la O-Cavazos and Nadina Rubio-Pérez
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:30
  28. There is mounting evidence on the existence of a Pediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome-temporally associated to SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), sharing similarities with Kawasaki Disease (KD). The main o...

    Authors: Marco Cattalini, Sara Della Paolera, Fiammetta Zunica, Claudia Bracaglia, Manuela Giangreco, Lucio Verdoni, Antonella Meini, Rita Sottile, Roberta Caorsi, Gianvincenzo Zuccotti, Marianna Fabi, Davide Montin, Alessandra Meneghel, Alessandro Consolaro, Rosa Maria Dellepiane, Maria Cristina Maggio…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:29
  29. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in children, with an annual incidence of 2–20 cases per 100,000 and a prevalence of 16–150 per 100,000. It is associated with several...

    Authors: Debora Mariarita d’Angelo, Giulia Di Donato, Luciana Breda and Francesco Chiarelli
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:28
  30. Some patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) and severe, refractory disease achieved remission through intensive immunosuppressive treatment followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell t...

    Authors: Guillaume Morelle, Martin Castelle, Graziella Pinto, Sylvain Breton, Matthieu Bendavid, Charlotte Boussard, Richard Mouy, Brigitte Bader-Meunier, Michaela Semeraro, Albert Faye, Marina Cavazzana, Bénédicte Neven, Stéphane Blanche, Pierre Quartier and Despina Moshous
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:27
  31. Prevention of illness due to infection by influenza viruses is important for children with rheumatic diseases. Biological disease modifying antirheumatic drugs have become increasingly important in the treatme...

    Authors: Lotte Jensen, Susan Nielsen, Anne Estmann Christensen, Freddy Karup Pedersen, Ramona Trebbien, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Susanne Rosthøj, Peter Toftedal, Anna-Helene Bohr, Peder Skov Wehner and Anja Poulsen
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:26
  32. Platelet activation is an integral part of pathogenesis of Kawasaki disease (KD). However, there is paucity of literature on flow-cytometry based assessment of platelet activation in KD. We aimed to analyse mo...

    Authors: Pandiarajan Vignesh, Amit Rawat, Jitendra Kumar Shandilya, Man Updesh Singh Sachdeva, Jasmina Ahluwalia and Surjit Singh
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:25
  33. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance prediction is one pivotal topic of interests in Kawasaki disease (KD). This study aimed to prospectively investigated the value of C-reactive protein-to-albumin (CA...

    Authors: Xiaoliang Liu, Lin Wang, Kaiyu Zhou, Shuran Shao, Yimin Hua, Mei Wu, Lei Liu and Chuan Wang
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:24
  34. In adults with rheumatic diseases pulmonary complications are relevant contributors to morbidity and mortality. In these patients diffusion capacity for CO (DLCO) is an established method to detect early pulmo...

    Authors: Julia Hildebrandt, Anja Rahn, Anja Kessler, Fabian Speth, Dagmar-Christiane Fischer and Manfred Ballmann
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:23
  35. Juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFS) is a chronic, musculoskeletal pain syndrome affecting children and adolescents, most commonly adolescent girls. The syndrome has a multifactorial etiology, with al...

    Authors: Maya Levy Coles, Rotem Weissmann and Yosef Uziel
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:22

    The Review to this article has been published in Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:74

  36. Systemic lupus erythematosus is a multi-organ inflammatory autoimmune disease; immune complexes are part of the pathogenesis, but not entirely responsible. Trisomy X is the most common female chromosomal abnor...

    Authors: Susumu Yamazaki, Yuko Akutsu, Asami Shimbo, Masaki Shimizu, Yuko Segawa and Masaaki Mori
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:20
  37. Mental health disorders are common in youth with rheumatological disease yet optimal intervention strategies are understudied in this population. We examined patient and parent perspectives on mental health in...

    Authors: Oluwatunmise A. Fawole, Michelle V. Reed, Julia G. Harris, Aimee Hersh, Martha Rodriguez, Karen Onel, Erica Lawson, Tamar Rubinstein, Kaveh Ardalan, Esi Morgan, Anne Paul, Judy Barlin, R. Paola Daly, Mitali Dave, Shannon Malloy, Shari Hume…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:19
  38. Early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) and Blau syndrome (BS) are systemic inflammatory granulomatous diseases without visible pulmonary involvement, and are distinguishable from their sporadic and familial forms. The ...

    Authors: Fumiko Okazaki, Hiroyuki Wakiguchi, Yuno Korenaga, Tamaki Nakamura, Hiroki Yasudo, Shohei Uchi, Ryoji Yanai, Nobuyuki Asano, Yoshinobu Hoshii, Tsuyoshi Tanabe, Kazushi Izawa, Yoshitaka Honda, Ryuta Nishikomori, Keisuke Uchida, Yoshinobu Eishi, Shouichi Ohga…
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:18
  39. Tibial stress injuries are frequent injuries of the lower extremity and the most common causes of exercise-induced leg pain among athletes and military recruits. They sometimes occur in patients with pathologi...

    Authors: Tomo Nozawa, Audrey Bell-Peter, Andrea S. Doria, Jo-Anne Marcuz, Jennifer Stimec, Kristi Whitney and Brian M. Feldman
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:17
  40. Disordered eating and chronic pain often co-occur in adolescents, but the relationship between these conditions is not well understood. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and to identify the clinical char...

    Authors: Lauren Pianucci, Maitry Sonagra, Brooke A. Greenberg, Diana R. Priestley and Sabrina Gmuca
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:16
  41. Patients with systemic lupus erythematous have a significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which is not fully explained by traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. Despite increasing life...

    Authors: Dori Abel, Stacy P. Ardoin and Mark Gorelik
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:15
  42. Prompt diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is important to avoid long term complications. Elevated serum 14–3-3η levels improve the diagnostic sensitivity of rheumatoid factor (RF) and cyclic citr...

    Authors: Iris Reyhan, Olga S. Zhukov, Robert J. Lagier, Robert F. Bridgforth, Gary J. Williams, Joanna M. Popov, Stanley J. Naides and Andreas Reiff
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:14
  43. Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome and is caused by a severely dysregulated immune response. It has rarely been associated with neonatal lupus.

    Authors: Veerle Heijstek, Meelad Habib, Roel van der Palen, Remco van Doorn and Petra Hissink Muller
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:13
  44. Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis, and the formation of coronary artery lesions(CAL) is its most common sequela. Both genetic and environmental factors are considered to be important factors of in...

    Authors: Jia Yuan, Zhiyong Jiang, Meiai Li, Wei Li, Xueping Gu, Zhouping Wang, Lei Pi, Yufen Xu, Huazhong Zhou, Baidu Zhang, Qiulian Deng, Yanfei Wang, Ping Huang, Li Zhang and Xiaoqiong Gu
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:12
  45. Paediatric rheumatic diseases are a leading cause of acquired disability in Southeast Asia and Asia-Pacific Countries (SE ASIA/ASIAPAC). The aims of this study were to identify and describe the challenges to t...

    Authors: Sirikarn Tangcheewinsirikul, Swee-Ping Tang, Nicola Smith, Maynart Sukharomana, Sirirat Charuvanij, Soamarat Vilaiyuk, Thaschawee Arkachaisri, Christiaan Scott and Helen E. Foster
    Citation: Pediatric Rheumatology 2021 19:11

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