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Table 1 The main clinical and laboratorial characteristics of JIA subtypes based on International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) classification criteria. ANA – antinuclear antibodies, Anti-CCP – Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide, CRP - C-reactive protein, ERA - enthesitis-related arthritis, HLA - human leukocyte antigen system, RF – rheumatoid factor, sJIA – systemic JIA

From: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis: from aetiopathogenesis to therapeutic approaches

Subtype Oligoarticular JIA Polyarticular JIA RF- Polyarticular JIA RF+ ERA Psoriatic JIA Systemic sJIA
Characteristic of arthritis • ≤4 joints affected• Mainly large joints• Asymmetric, often only a single joint (knee) • ≥5 joints affected• Symmetric or asymmetric• Small and large joints• Sometimes a cervical spine and/or temporomandibular joint • ≥5 joints affected• Symmetric• Mainly small joints (metacarpophalangeal joints and wrists)• Erosive• Aggressive symmetric polyarthritis • Lower limb joints affected more common• Axial involvement: sacroiliac joint, hip or shoulder • Asymmetric arthritis• Small and large joints • Usually arthralgias;• 30–50% chronic arthritis - slowly developed• Mostly wrists, knees, ankles joints or asymptomatic temporomandibular arthritis
Systemic manifestation 30% uveitis 10% uveitis • Rheumatoid nodules• 10% uveitis • Acute anterior uveitis• EnthesitisGut inflammation • Psoriasis• Dactylitis• Onycholysis• Nail pitting• Uveitis (10–15%) • Spiking fever• Generalized lymphadenopathy• Migratory salmon-pink rash• Serositis (pericarditis most common, then pleuritic and peritonitis)• Hepatosplenomegaly• MAS
Sex predominance Female Female Female Male Equal Equal
HLA genetic pre-disposition Associated with• A2DRB1*11DRB1*08DPB1*0201DRB1*15*01DQA1*04DQB1*04DRB1*13 for persistent• DRB1*01 for extended variant Associated with• A2DRB1*08DPB1:03DQA1*04DRB1*15*01DPB1*02*01 Associated with• DRB1*04DRB1*01DRB1*08DQA1*03 Associated with• B27DRB1*01DQA1*01DQB1*05 Associated with• DRB1*01DRB1*11DRB1*12HLA-C*06 - biomarker for skin involvement• B27 – for sacroileitis (mostly in older age) Associated with• DRB1:04DQA1*01DQB1*04• DRB1*01
Biomarkers 60% ANA+ 40% ANA+ • RF+• Anti-CCP+• ANA+ in 40% 45–85% HLA-B27+ 50% ANA+ Elevating level of• CRP• Ferritin• Platelets
Adult equivalent Potential Seronegative Rheumatoid Arthritis RF-positive Rheumatoid Arthritis Spondyloarthropathies Psoriatic Arthritis Adult Onset Still’s Disease