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Table 4 Exposure to antibiotics in the uterus and during the growth of those children who later developed JIA, categories of JIA compared to controls from the general population

From: Infections and antibiotics during fetal life and childhood and their relationship to juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a prospective cohort study

  JIA
  Control sJIA aOR (95% CI) p Oligo aOR (95% CI) p Poly RF- aOR (95% CI) p Poly RF+ aOR (95% CI) p PsA aOR (95% CI) p ERA aOR (95% CI) p Undiff. aOR (95% CI) p
No. of subjects 16,489 7    25    16    4    11    16    23   
During pregnancy
 Any antibiotics (Yes or No), n (%) 2997 (20%) 4 (57%) 5.3 (1.2–23.5) .030 7 (30%) 1.7 (0.7–4.2) .229 4 (27%) 1.4 (0.5–4.5) .537 0 (0%) NA# .986 1 (13%) 0.6 (0.1–4.6) .592 4 (25%) 1.3 (0.4–4.1) .636 1 (5%) 0.2 (0.0–1.6) .126
From birth to 1 month
 Any antibiotics (Yes or No), n (%) 644 (6%) 1 (20%) 3.8 (0.4–34.0) .233 2 (13%) 2.3 (0.5–10.4) .265 2 (14%) 2.5 (0.6–11.3) .225 0 (0%) NA# .993 0 (0%) NA# .993 1 (9%) 1.5 (0.2–11.9) .691 1 (7%) 1.1 (0.1–8.3) .937
From 1 to 12 month
 Infection with antibiotics (Yes or No), n (%) 3600 (38%) 3 (50%) 1.1 (0.6–2.3) .699 3 (23%) 0.8 (0.4–1.3) .345 8 (62%) 1.5 (1.0–2.4) .073 1 (50%) 1.1 (0.3–3.9) .823 2 (25%) 1.0 (0.6–1.9) .902 6 (67%) 1.9 (1.1–3.3) .029 6 (50%) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) .187
 No. of courses (any antibiotic), mean (SD) 0.7 (1.2) 0.8 (0.8) 1.0 (0.5–1.9) .996 0.5 (1.2) 0.8 (0.5–1.5) .533 1.3 (1.4) 1.3 (1.0–1.7) .101 0.8 (1.1) 1.0 (0.3–3.1) .998 1.5 (3.0) 1.3 (1.0–1.9) .088 1.8 (1.8) 1.4 (1.1–1.9) .011 1.5 (2.4) 1.3 (1.0–1.8) .037
From 1 to 3 years
 Infection with antibiotics (Yes or No), n (%) 4826 (60%) 4 (67%) 1.3 (0.2–7.3) .737 6 (75%) 2.0 (0.4–10.0) .394 8 (89%) 5.4 (0.7–42.8) .076 2 (67%) 1.5 (0.6–3.8) .426 3 (75%) 2.0 (0.2–19.3) .546 5 (83%) 3.3 (0.4–28.6) .270 8 (89%) 1.7 (1.0–3.0) .061
 Penicillin (Yes or No), n (%) 5352 (63%) 4 (67%) 1.2 (0.2–6.5) .840 7 (78%) 2.1 (0.4–10.0) .360 7 (70%) 1.4 (0.4–5.4) .634 2 (67%) 1.2 (0.1–13.1) .887 3 (75%) 1.8 (0.2–17.2) .615 6 (86%) 3.6 (0.4–29.7) .239 8 (89%) 4.8 (0.6–38.1) .141
 Non-penicillin (Yes or No), n (%) 1029 (13%) 1 (17%) 1.4 (0.2–11.9) .765 2 (25%) 2.3 (0.5–11.5) .305 3 (38%) 4.2 (1.0–17.4) .034 0 (0%) NA# .991 1 (33%) 3.5 (0.3–38.3) .310 2 (29%) 2.8 (0.5–14.3) .223 1 (14%) 1.2 (0.1–9.6) .894
 No. of courses (any antibiotic), mean (SD) 1.5 (1.9) 1.0 (0.8) 0.8 (0.5–1.5) .512 1.8 (1.5) 1.1 (0.8–1.5) .703 2.2 (1.5) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) .287 3.2 (4.3) 1.3 (0.9–2.0) .145 1.8 (1.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) .788 1.3 (0.6) 0.9 (0.6–1.5) .742 2.6 (2.4) 1.2 (1.0–1.6) .082
 No. of courses (penicillin), mean (SD) 1.5 (1.8) 1.8 (0.8) 1.0 (0.4–2.8) .987 2.0 (1.6) 1.5 (0.7–3.2) .281 1.9 (0.7) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) .771 1.8 (2.0) 1.3 (0.3–5.0) .704 2.0 (0.8) 1.3 (0.4–4.2) .661 2.6 (2.7) 1.3 (0.9–1.7) .115 2.3 (2.4) 1.7 (0.8–3.6) .135
 No. of courses (non-penicillin), mean (SD) 0.3 (0.9) 0.5 (1.2) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) .271 0.4 (0.7) 1.3 (0.7–2.7) .407 0.9 (1.2) 1.8 (1.0–3.2) .036 0.0 (0.0) NA# .991 0.7 (1.2) 1.6 (0.6–4.4) .387 0.8 (1.5) 1.6 (0.9–3.1) .141 0.2 (0.6) 1.0 (0.4–2.7) .974
From 3 to 5 years
 Infection with antibiotics (Yes or No), n (%) 4223 (61%) 2 (40%) 0.7 (0.4–1.6) .436 5 (45%) 0.8 (0.5–1.4) .495 6 (75%) 1.1 (0.6–2.0) .670 2 (100%) NA# .320 3 (60%) 1.1 (0.5–2.3) .770 2 (33%) 0.6 (0.3–1.2) .149 8 (67%) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) .684
 Penicillin (Yes or No), n (%) 4813 (67%) 5 (83%) 2.4 (0.3–20.9) .416 8 (67%) 1.0 (0.3–3.2) .967 5 (63%) 0.8 (0.2–3.4) .776 2 (100%) NA# .320 3 (60%) 0.7 (0.1–4.4) .732 2 (33%) 0.2 (0.0–1.3) .103 8 (73%) 1.3 (0.3–4.9) .699
 Non-penicillin (Yes or No), n (%) 837 (12%) 1 (17%) 1.5 (0.2–12.4) .735 2 (18%) 1.6 (0.3–7.5) .542 1 (13%) 1.0 (0.1–8.4) .974 0 (0%) NA# .992 1 (20%) 1.8 (0.2–16.2) .595 0 (0%) NA# .992 1 (11%) 0.9 (0.1–7.3) .926
 No. of courses (any antibiotic), mean (SD) 1.5 (1.8) 1.1 (1.7) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) .617 1.5 (2.5) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) .982 1.4 (1.2) 1.0 (0.7–1.4) .908 4.8 (4.6) 1.6 (1.0–2.5) .048 1.9 (2.0) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) .639 0.5 (0.8) 0.5 (0.2–1.3) .175 1.8 (2.3) 1.1 (0.8–1.4) .656
 No. of courses (penicillin), mean (SD) 1.7 (1.8) 2.2 (1.2) 1.5 (0.7–3.2) .243 1.8 (1.7) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) .809 1.4 (1.2) 0.9 (0.5–1.4) .528 4.8 (4.6) 1.6 (1.0–2.5) .048 1.4 (1.3) 0.9 (0.5–1.6) .750 1.6 (3.2) 0.7 (0.3–1.3) .250 1.3 (1.1) 1.0 (0.6–1.6) .919
 No. of courses (non-penicillin), mean (SD) 0.2 (0.8) 0.3 (0.8) 1.1 (0.4–3.0) .812 0.3 (0.6) 1.2 (0.6–2.4) .647 0.3 (0.7) 1.0 (0.4–2.6) .960 0.0 (0.0) NA# .992 0.4 (0.9) 1.2 (0.5–3.4) .675 0.0 (0.0) NA# .991 0.9 (2.7) 1.5 (1.0–2.0) .025
From 5 to 8 years
 Infection with antibiotics (Yes or No), n (%) 1450 (38%) 3 (75%) 1.9 (0.8–4.4) .120 5 (56%) 1.4 (0.8–2.5) .187 3 (50%) 1.4 (0.7–2.8) .281 0 (0%) NA NA 3 (100%) NA# .028 2 (40%) 1.5 (0.7–3.1) .267 1 (17%) 0.6 (0.2–1.6) .289
 Penicillin (Yes or No), n (%) 1562 (40%) 3 (75%) 4.5 (0.5–43.5) .192 4 (44%) 1.2 (0.3–4.5) .781 3 (50%) 1.5 (0.3–7.5) .616 0 (0%) NA NA 3 (100%) NA# .034 2 (40%) 1.0 (0.2–6.0) .996 2 (33%) 0.8 (0.1–4.1) .744
 Non-penicillin (Yes or No), n (%) 237 (6%) 3 (0%) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) .996 16 (0%) 0.0 (0.0–0.0) .995 2 (33%) 7.6 (1.4–41.6) .006 0 (0%) NA NA 0 (0%) NA# .996 4 (100%) 5.1 (0.5–48.8) .161 0 (0%) NA# .995
 No. of courses (any antibiotic), mean (SD) 0.8 (1.3) 1.8 (1.7) 1.4 (0.9–2.1) .142 1.4 (1.6) 1.3 (0.9–1.8) .154 1.6 (2.0) 1.3 (0.9–1.9) .131 0 (0%) NA NA 1.5 (0.0) 1.3 (0.8–2.2) .334 2.4 (3.6) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) .011 0.3 (0.6) 0.5 (0.1–1.9) .309
 No. of courses (penicillin), mean (SD) 0.7 (1.1) 1.5 (1.0) 1.7 (0.7–4.2) .236 1.5 (1.9) 1.4 (1.0–2.0) .034 1.2 (1.3) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) .313 0 (0%) NA NA 2.0 (0.0) 2.7 (0.9–8.6) .091 2.4 (3.6) 1.7 (1.2–2.4) .002 0.5 (0.8) 0.8 (0.3–2.0) .613
 No. of courses (non-penicillin), mean (SD) 0.1 (0.5) 0.0 (0.0) NA# .995 0.0 (0.0) NA# .995 0.7 (1.0) 2.3 (1.1–4.8) .027 0 (0%) NA NA 0.0 (0.0) NA# .996 2.0 (4.0) 2.9 (1.3–6.2) .007 0.0 (0.0) NA# .995
  1. The adjusted odds ratio is calculated in the logistic regression. Bold shows results reaching statistical significance (p-value below 0.05 and 95% CI not overlapping the null value of 1.00). NA = not applicable. # = p-value from Chi-square test
  2. JIA = juvenile idiopathic arthritis; sJIA = systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis; aOR = adjusted odds ratio; Oligo = oligoarticular arthritis; Poly RF- = polyarticular rheumatoid-factor-negative arthritis; Poly RF+ = polyarticular rheumatoid-factor-positive arthritis; PsA = psoriatic arthritis; ERA = enthesitis-related arthritis; Undiff. = undifferentiated arthritis