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Table 4 Comparison of studies on platelet functions in Kawasaki disease reported in English literature

From: Monocyte platelet aggregates in children with Kawasaki disease- a preliminary study from a tertiary care centre in North-West India

Study, year, and Country Platelet activation marker studied Study population characteristics Comments
Yokoyama et al. (1980) Japan [8] Platelet aggregation by optical density method 23 patients with KD (Age range: 3 months-6 years; M:F = 14:9); Platelet aggregation in patients with untreated KD (82.4 ± 11.6 %) significantly higher than normal controls (69 ± 5 %) and patients with KD treated with low dose aspirin (66.8 ± 9.6 %). Platelet aggregation increased from 2nd week of illness.
Burns et al. (1984) USA [12] Plasma beta-thromboglobulin 31 patients with KD Levels significantly higher in patients with coronary aneurysms compared to patients without aneurysms measured 3 weeks after fever (72.3 ng/ml vs. 29.4 ng/ml respectively, p < 0.002).
Taki et al. (2003)
Japan [7]
Platelet aggregation by particle counting method (mV count) 104 children with KD (mean age: 2.1 ± 1.9 years; M:F = 15:11); 9 normal controls Spontaneous platelet aggregation was higher in patients with KD (46.6 × 103±13.2 × 103) compared to normal subjects (9.4 × 103±3 × 103). It reduced significantly after IVIg therapy (22.8 × 103±6.6 × 103).
Ueno et al. (2009)
Japan [13]
Platelet VEGF by ELISA 80 patients with KD (Mean age: 2.1 ± 1.8 years, M:F = 43:37); 26 controls Levels significantly high in KD (18.8 ± 10.1 × 10− 8 pg) compared to controls (8.1 ± 3.0 × 10− 8 pg). The levels decreased in IVIg responders and remained elevated in IVIg non-responders.
Yahata et al. (2014) Japan [10] Platelet derived microparticles by ELISA 18 patients with acute KD (mean age: 2 years 7 months) in whom 14 received IVIg therapy; 33 children as febrile controls Levels were significantly high in acute phase of KD (43.9 ± 13.5 U/ml) compared to febrile controls (15.4 ± 6.8 U/ml). The levels significantly came down with IVIg therapy and it rebounded after discontinuation of aspirin in 8 patients.
Laurito et al. (2014) Italy [9] Monocyte platelet aggregates by flow cytometry 14 patients with past history of KD (mean follow-up: 76 ± 58 months; M:F = 9:5); 14 controls Mean %MPAs were similar in patients and controls even after ADP stimulation (18.3 ± 1.9 % vs. 17.2 ± 1.5 %; p = 0.09). CD41 expression in MPA gate was higher in KD than controls after ADP stimulation (19.3 ± 1.3 % vs. 17 ± 1.7; p < 0.001).
Ueno et al. (2015)
Japan [11]
Neutrophil-platelet aggregates by flow cytometry 40 patients with KD (median age: 1.75 years, M:F ≈ 1:1); 7 febrile controls, and 9 normal controls Percentage of neutrophil-platelet aggregates were significantly high in KD compared to febrile and normal controls. Rate of decrease in aggregates was significantly high in patients who received prednisolone + IVIg compared to patients who had received IVIg alone.
Present study (2019) India Monocyte platelet aggregates by flow cytometry 14 patients with acute KD (Median age: 6 years; M:F = 6:1); 15 febrile controls and 13 normal controls Median %MPA significantly higher in KD compared to febrile and normal control (41.3 vs. 5.9 vs. 4.5 %; p < 0.001). Levels significantly came down 24 h after IVIg therapy (18.6 %; p < 0.001).
  1. KD Kawasaki Disease; MPA Monocyte-platelet aggregates; IVIg Intravenous immunoglobulin; VEGF Vascular endothelial growth factor; ELISA Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; ADP Adenosine diphosphate
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