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Table 2 Univariate relationships between laboratory evaluation, subclinical atherosclerosis and CIMT in juvenile systemic lupus study participants

From: Disease activity index is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus

Variable (n) Subclinical Atherosclerosis
n (%) or mean [SD]
P value* # CIMT – mm
mean [SD]
P value #
Yes (9) No (19) Opposite dichotomic Control
Anemia 4 (40) 6 (60) 0.67 0.44[0.03] 0.43[0.05] 0.22
Leukopenia 2 (66.7) 1 (33.3) 0.23 0.43[0.03] 0.43[0.04] 0.58
Lymphopenia 3 (27.3) 8 (72.7) 1 0.42[0.42] 0.44[0.05] 0.40
Hematuria 5 (45.4) 6 (54.5) 0.40 0.44[0.05] 0.43[0.04] 0.29
Leukocyturia 5 (50) 5 (50) 0.21 0.44[0.05] 0.43[0.04] 0.77
Urinary casts 1 (50) 1 (50) 1 0.41[0.03] 0.43[0.04] 0.45
Proteinuria** 7 (58) 5 (41.7) 0.02 0.45[0.04] 0.42[0.04] 0.02
Proteinuria moderate to severe 5 (62.5) 3 (37.5) 0.06 0.44[0.03] 0.43[0.04] 0.28
Estimate CrCl < 75 ml/min/1.73m2 3 (100) 0 0.02 0.47[0.02] 0.43[0.04] 0.04
Estimate CrCl 125.5 [58.9] 162.8 [42.9] 0.14    
Anti-dsDNAn 7 (33) 14 (66,7) 1 0.43[0.04] 0.43[0.05] 0.79
Antiphospholipid positive 7 (50) 7 (50) 0.10 0.42[0.04] 0.44[0.05] 0.68
Low complement C3 5 (38) 8 (61) 0.69 0.43[0.05] 0.43[0.04] 0.75
C4 4 (36.4) 7(63.6) 1 0.43[0.04] 0.43[0.04] 0.74
Dyslipidemia 8 (34.8) 15 (65.2) 1 0.43[0.04] 0.43[0.06] 0.95
Triglycerides (≥130 mg/dL) 5(50) 5(50) 0.2 0.43[0.04] 0.43[0.05] 0.94
Triglycerides 189.5 [139.8] 118.3 [82.4] 0.07    
Total Cholesterol (> 170 mg/dL) 6 (60) 4 (40) 0.03 0.44[0.03] 0.43[0.05] 0.24
Total Cholesterol mean [SD] 196.1 [52.5] 148.2 [33.9] < 0.01    
LDL 2 (50) 2 (50) 0.57 0.44[0.05] 0.43[0.04] 0.54
LDL means [SD] 84.9 [22.1] 112.6 [47.9] 0.14    
HDL (< 45 mg/dL) 5 (31.2) 11 (68.7) 1 0.43[0.04] 0.44[0.04] 0.66
HDL means [SD] 43 [8] 37.3 [11.9] 0.20    
High hsCRP 1 (14.3) 6 (85.7) 0.37 0.42[0.03] 0.44[0.04] 0.58
Hyperhomocysteinemia 2 (67) 1 (33) 0.23 0.45[0.02] 0.43[0.04] 0.24
Homocystein mean [SD] 8.4 [3.2] 15 [14] 0.18    
Low cyanocobalamin 0 1(100) 1    
Cyanocobalamin mean [SD] 433.7 [221.5] 411.5 [201] 0.81    
Low folate 0 1(100) 1    
Folate mean [SD] 9.4 ± 3.7 10.7 ± 3.8 0.5    
IL-1 alpha 1 (33.3) 2(66.7) 1 0.46[0.08] 0.43[0.04] 0.75
IL-17 (2) 0 2 (100) 1 0.42[0.01] 0.44[0.05] 0.39
INF-gamma (4) 1 (25) 3 (75) 1 0.45[0.06] 0.43[0.04] 0.84
IL-10 (7) 2(28.6) 5 (71.4) 1 0.42[0.02] 0.45[0.05] 0.46
IL-1 beta (4) 0 4(100) 0.25 0.41[0.02] 0.44[0.05] 0.24
TNF- alpha (4) 0 4 (100) 0.25 0.41[0.02] 0.44[0.05] 0.24
IL-6 mean [SD] 8.6 [10.5] 14.4 [22.8] 0.42    
ICAM-1 mean [SD] 302.9 [81.4] 231.8 [100.9] 0.12    
VCAM-1 mean [SD] 728.2 [626] 418.9 [237.4] 0.42    
P-selectina mean [SD] 52.0 [21.3] 191.9 [288.5] 0.11    
  1. *Fisher and #Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests. ** protein to creatinine ratio ≥ 0.2. LDL low density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, hsCRP high sensitivity c-reactive, protein, IL interleukins, IFN interferon, (IFN), VCAM-1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, ICAM-1 intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and P-selectin high sensitivity c-reactive, protein (hsCRP), CIMT carotid intima-media thickness, SD standard deviation, CrCl creatinine clearance, mm: millimeters