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Table 4 Predictors of specific brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) abnormalities in patients with Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) and en coup de sabre (ECDS)

From: Magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with Parry-Romberg syndrome and en coup de sabre

     Demographics Neurological disorders Psychiatric disorders Laboratory
     Age Age at diagnosis Ethnicity Disease type Sex Any Seizures Headaches Cranial nerve dysfunction Any Anxiety ANA
     < 14 > 14 p < 7 > 7 p White British Other p ECDS ECDS/PRS p M F p Yes No p Yes No p Yes No p Yes No p Yes No p Yes No p Yes No p
Specific MRI changes White matter high signal intensity n = 6 Yes 4 2 0.59 4 2 0.59 3 3 0.18 2 4 0.63 2 4 0.63 6 0 0.031 5 1 0.026 2 4 1 2 4 0.16 2 4 1 1 5 1 3 2 1
No 3 5 3 5 6 0 4 4 4 4 3 5 1 7 2 6 0 8 2 6 1 7 4 3
Dystrophic calcification n = 5 Yes 3 2 1 4 1 0.27 3 2 0.52 2 3 1 2 3 1 5 0 0.1 4 1 0.1 2 3 1 1 4 1 2 3 1 1 4 1 2 2 1
No 4 4 3 5 6 1 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 6 2 6 1 7 2 6 1 7 4 3
Contrast enhancement n = 5 Yes 3 2 1 4 1 1 3 2 1 2 3 0.52 2 3 1 5 0 1 4 1 0.52 2 3 1 1 4 1 2 3 1 1 4 1 2 2 1
No 4 1 3 2 4 1 4 1 3 2 4 1 2 3 2 3 1 4 1 4 0 5 2 2
Leptomeningeal enhancement n = 4 Yes 2 2 0.5 3 1 1 2 2 0.5 2 2 1 1 3 0.52 4 0 1 3 1 0.57 2 2 1 1 3 1 2 2 0.5 1 3 0.4 2 2 1
No 5 1 4 2 5 1 4 2 4 2 5 1 3 3 2 4 1 5 1 5 0 6 2 2
Sulcal crowding n = 3 Yes 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 0.45 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 0.4 1 2 1 0 3 1 2 1 1
No 6 5 5 6 8 2 5 6 5 6 7 4 5 6 3 8 1 10 3 8 2 9 5 4
Cavernomata n = 1 Yes 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0.43 1 0 1 1 0 0.43 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1
No 6 7 6 7 8 3 6 7 5 8 8 5 5 8 4 9 2 11 4 9 2 11 7 5
Porencephaly n = 1 Yes 1 7 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0.43 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0.42
No 6 0 6 7 8 3 6 7 6 7 8 5 5 8 4 9 2 11 4 9 2 11 7 4
  1. Groups were compared using Fisher’s exact test; p < 0.05 was considered significant; significant results are highlighted in bold. M Male, F Female, ANA Anti-nuclear antibody. Contrast enhancement and dystrophic calcification could not be assessed in four and one patients respectively
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