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Table 3 Laboratory and echocardiography results

From: Distinguishing active pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia from MIS-C

  Active COVID-19 Pneumonia (N = 16) Moderate COVID-19 Pneumonia (N = 8) Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia (N = 8) MIS-C (N = 21) Mild MIS-C (N = 10) Severe MIS-C (N = 11) Total vs Total Severe vs Severe
Laboratory findings on admission - no. (%)
 Acute kidney injury 5 (31) 3 (37.5) 2 (25) 8 (38) 2 (20) 6 (55) 0.7386 0.3521
 Elevated liver enzymes 12 (75) 7 (87.5) 5 (62.5) 13 (62) 5 (50) 8 (73) 0.4912 1.0000
 Lymphopenia 9 (56) 4 (50) 5 (62.5) 14 (67) 6 (60) 8 (73) 0.7332 1.0000
 Thrombocytopenia 3 (19) 0 (0) 3 (37.5) 5 (24) 1 (10) 4 (36) 1.0000 1.0000
Laboratory values on admission - median value (IQR)
 Sodium (mmoL/L) 139 (136.75–141.25) 137.5 (135.75–138.25) 141.5 (139.75–142.25) 133 (131.75–134.25) 134 (133–136.5) 132 (130.3–133) 0.0004 0.0059
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.78 (0.52–1.14) 0.73 (0.56–0.99) 0.78 (0.38–1.39) 0.79 (0.59–0.89) 0.6 (0.57–0.76) 0.83 (0.77–1.24) 0.9390 0.5357
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.7 (3.25–4.15) 4 (3.7–4.3) 3.3 (3.05–3.7) 3.4 (3–3.6) 3.6 (3.25–3.68) 3 (2.6–3.5) 0.0821 0.2898
 Alanine transaminase (U/L) 37.4 (18.8–58.05) 55.05 (23.33–153.13) 28.55 (16.4–44.03) 42.4 (20.9–65.35) 34.3 (15.2–52.8) 52.2 (27.73–73.6) 0.9746 0.1309
 Aspartate transaminase (U/L) 54.5 (33.75–115.25) 60.5 (48–126.25) 44.5 (27.25–70.25) 43 (25.75–56.25) 34 (24.25–46) 43.5 (36.25–56.75) 0.2791 0.6251
 Brain znatriuretic peptide (pg/mL) 46.85 (27.25–111.375) 10 (10–31.7) 101.4 (39.85–1281.85) 642.5 (47.1–1129.15) 40.75 (10–101.6) 1004.95 (229.5–1778.5) 0.7353 0.6184
 Troponin (ng/mL) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.01 (0.01–0.02) 0.02 (0.01–0.05) 0.1 (0.02–1.4) 0.01 (0.01–0.07) 0.24 (0.03–2.17) 0.3194 0.2689
 C-reactive protein (mg/dL) 4.6 (1.41–11.11) 3.62 (1.27–4.95) 9.2 (1.43–11.9) 15.93 (11.17–23.1) 14 (6.21–18.14) 17.73 (11.98–27.62) 0.0015 0.0057
 Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/hr) 25 (9–40) 29.5 (13–38.5) 19 (12.5–35) 48 (38–58) 49.5 (40.75–59.25) 41 (38–58) 0.0031 0.0097
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 0.77 (0.37–2.65) 0.37 (0.18–3.28) 1.32 (0.77–2.61) 11.51 (4.35–24.41) 2.18 (1.90–2.45) 13.51 (8.41–31.96) 0.0004 0.0013
 White blood cell count (10^3/uL) 9.95 (4.54–13.85) 4.3 (2.39–7.39) 11.44 (9.74–22.61) 10.58 (8.44–12.78) 10.82 (8.1–11.84) 9.79 (8.88–14.92) 0.4903 0.3218
 Absolute lymphocyte count (10^3/uL) 1.15 (0.59–1.42) 1.15 (0.53–1.32) 1.19 (0.83–1.51) 0.84 (0.5–1.51) 1.07 (0.91–1.75) 0.5 (0.44–0.74) 0.5774 0.1200
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.1 (10.6–14.73) 12.6 (11.35–14.78) 11.7 (10.58–14.13) 11.5 (10.4–11.9) 11.55 (10.8–12.13) 11.3 (10.1–11.8) 0.1010 0.3020
 Platelet count (10^3/uL) 201 (164.75–263.5) 226.5 (181.25–276) 180.5 (77.25–239.5) 190 (155–225) 215 (165.75–271.3) 180 (129.5–201) 0.6567 0.9671
 International normalized ratio 1.1 (1.1–1.25) 1.13 (1.08–1.17) 1.1 (1.1–1.35) 1.24 (1.18–1.4) 1.15 (1.1–1.2) 1.4 (1.22–1.4) 0.0842 0.0877
 Ferritin (ng/mL) 472.6 (230.6–1982) 472.6 (230.6–683.4) 710.5 (246.55–1998.25) 520.1 (282.5–789.1) 461.9 (201.25–761.9) 520.1 (370.7–1032.5) 0.7632 0.9342
 Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 667 (462–818) 767 (609.5–4861.5) 647 (503.25–780.25) 244 (200–299) 271.5 (216–454.8) 225 (184.5–264) 0.0005 0.0049
 D-dimer FEU (ug/mL) 1.31 (0.61–1.94) 1.18 (0.65–1.29) 1.93 (1.21–2.03) 2.51 (1.58–3.25) 1.71 (1.37–2.35) 3.15 (2.42–3.79) 0.0236 0.0416
 Fibrinogen (mg/dL) 447 (312.5–594) 529 (513–610) 373 (260.25–500) 544 (467–632) 561.5 (424.75–633.3) 489 (468.5–629) 0.2114 0.0987
Echocardiography findings - no./total no. (%)
 Decreased systolic function or ejection fraction 1/7 (14) 0/2 (0) 1/5 (20) 5/21 (24) 1/10 (10) 4/11 (36) 1.0000 0.6000
 Coronary artery dilation 0/7 (0) 0/2 (0) 0/5 (0) 7/21 (33) 2/10 (20) 5/11 (45) 0.1414 0.1186
 Z-score - median value (IQR) N/A N/A N/A 2.15 (2.12–2.92) 2.12 (2.11–2.12) 2.81 (2.15–3.03) N/A N/A
 Heart block 0/7 (0) 0/2 (0) 0/5 (0) 1/21 (5) 0/10 (0) 1/11 (9) 1.0000 1.0000
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