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Table 2 Presentation and SARS-CoV-2 testing

From: Distinguishing active pediatric COVID-19 pneumonia from MIS-C

  Active COVID-19 Pneumonia (N = 16) Moderate COVID-19 Pneumonia (N = 8) Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia (N = 8) MIS-C (N = 21) Mild MIS-C (N = 10) Severe MIS-C (N = 11) Total vs Total Severe vs Severe
Symptoms on Presentation - no. (%)
 Fever 12 (75) 7 (87.5) 5 (62.5) 21 (100) 10 (100) 11 (100) 0.0276 0.0578
 Respiratory Symptoms 14 (87.5) 6 (75) 8 (100) 1 (5) 1 (10) 0 (0) < 0.00001 < 0.00001
  Hypoxia 7 (44) 1 (12.5) 6 (75) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.0011 0.0010
  Cough 7 (44) 5 (62.5) 2 (25) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.0011 0.1637
  Shortness of Breath 9 (56) 4 (50) 5 (62.5) 1 (5) 1 (10) 0 (0) 0.0001 0.0048
 Gastrointestinal Symptoms 6 (37.5) 3 (37.5) 3 (37.5) 21 (100) 10 (100) 11 (100) < 0.00001 0.0048
  Nausea/Vomiting 5 (31) 2 (25) 3 (37.5) 15 (71) 8 (80) 7 (64) 0.0220 0.3698
  Diarrhea 2 (12.5) 2 (25) 0 (0) 11 (52) 5 (50) 6 (55) 0.0165 0.0181
  Abdominal Pain 1 (6) 1 (12.5) 0 (0) 12 (57) 6 (60) 6 (55) 0.0016 0.0181
 Rash 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 13 (62) 7 (70) 6 (55) 0.0001 0.0181
 Conjunctivitis 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 14 (67) 8 (80) 6 (55) < 0.00001 0.0181
 Mucosal Changes 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (19) 2 (20) 2 (18) 0.1182 0.4854
Length of symptoms prior to presentation - days (IQR)
 Median duration of symptoms prior to presentation 3 (1.75–6.25) 3.5 (2.75–7) 2 (1–3.75) 4 (3–5) 5 (3.25–5) 4 (3–4.5) 0.2902 0.2155
COVID-19 exposures
 Known COVID-19 exposure - no. (%) 8 (50) 5 (62.5) 3 (37.5) 6 (29) 4 (40) 2 (18) 0.3051 0.6027
 Prior documented COVID-19 infection - no. (%) N/A N/A N/A 4 (19) 2 (20) 2 (18)
 Time between exposure/infection and admission - days (IQR) 6 (4.25–7.75) 7.5 (6.5–8) 3.5 (3.25–3.75) 29.5 (24.5–32) 28 (14–31) 31 (29.5–33) 0.0201
Level of Admission - no. (%)
 Intensive Care 13 (81) 5 (62.5) 8 (100) 12 (57) 1 (10) 11 (100)
 Acute Care 3 (19) 3 (37.5) 0 (0) 9 (43) 9 (90) 0 (0)
Length of Stay – days (IQR) 14 (6.75–28.25) 9.5 (5.5–12.25) 29.5 (21.75–47) 5 (3–8) 3.5 (3.25–5) 7 (5.5–10) 0.0008 0.0023
SARS-CoV-2 Positivity - no. (%)
 PCR 16 (100) 8 (100) 8 (100) 8 (38) 5 (50) 3 (27) 0.0001 0.0010
 IgG Antibodies - no./total no. (%) 0/0 (0) 0/0 (0) 0/0 (0) 16/17 (94) 8/9 (89) 8/8 (100)
Additional Infectious Agent - no. (%)
 Viral 1 (6) 1 (12.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.4324 1.0000
 Bacterial 3 (19) 1 (12.5) 2 (25) 1 (5) 1 (10) 0 (0) 0.2962 0.1637
Vasopressor Requirement - no. (%)
 Yes 5 (31) 0 (0) 5 (62.5) 11 (52) 0 (0) 11 (100) 0.3161 0.0578
 No 11 (69) 8 (100) 3 (37.5) 10 (48) 10 (100) 0 (0)
Respiratory Support - no. (%)
 None 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 8 (38) 7 (70) 1 (9) 0.0056 1.0000
 Low Flow Oxygen 5 (31) 5 (62.5) 0 (0) 5 (24) 2 (20) 3 (27) 0.7165 0.2281
 High Flow Oxygen 3 (19) 3 (37.5) 0 (0) 2 (10) 1 (10) 1 (9) 0.6339 1.0000
 Positive pressure ventilation 8 (50) 0 (0) 8 (100) 6 (29) 0 (0) 6 (55) 0.3051 0.0445
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