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Table 4 Association between baseline and 8-year variables and fatigue at 18-year follow-up

From: Fatigue in young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis 18 years after disease onset: data from the prospective Nordic JIA cohort

  18-year follow-up
   Severe fatigueb
No. assessed Fatiguea mean ±SD No. (%) OR (95% CI) crude p-value OR (95% CI) adjustedc p-value
Baseline variables
 Sex
  Male 106 2.5 ±1.1 10 (9) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  Female 271 3.5 ±1.5 89 (33) 4.7 (2.3–9.4) < 0.001 4.6 (2.3–9.3) < 0.001
 Onset age
  < 6y 196 3.1 ±1.4 48 (24) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  ≥6y 179 3.3 ±1.5 50 (28) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 0.5 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.6
 Diagnostic delay
  < 6 months 304 3.1 ±1.4 72 (24) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  ≥6 months 41 3.9 ±1.7 18 (44) 2.5 (1.3–4.9) 0.007 2.9 (1.4–5.9) 0.004
 ANA
  Negative 146 3.2 ±1.5 37 (25) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  Positive 62 3.3 ±1.5 16 (26) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 0.9 0.9 (0.5–1.9) 0.9
 HLA-B27
  Negative 217 3.2 ±1.5 55 (25) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  Positive 60 3.4 ±1.6 20 (33) 1.5 (0.8–2.7) 0.2 1.7 (0.9–3.3) 0.1
 VAS paind
  =0 50 2.5 ±1.3 8 (16) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  > 0 161 3.4 ±1.6 50 (31) 2.4 (1.0–5.4) 0.04 2.2 (0.9–5.1) 0.08
 Cumulative active joints
  ≤4 joints 232 3.1 ±1.5 53 (23) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  > 4 joints 135 3.4 ±1.5 43 (32) 1.6 (1.0–2.5) 0.06 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.1
Variables at 8-year visit
 VAS pain
  =0 139 2.7 ±1.4 25 (18) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  > 0 151 3.5 ±1.5 51 (34) 2.3 (1.3–4.0) 0.003 2.3 (1.3–4.0) 0.005
 CHQ PhS
  ≥40 133 2.9 ±1.3 29 (22) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  < 40 32 4.0 ±1.8 16 (50) 3.6 (1.6–8.0) 0.002 3.7 (1.5–8.9) 0.004
 CHQ PsS
  ≥40 152 3.1 ±1.4 39 (26) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  < 40 13 3.7 ±1.9 6 (46) 2.5 (0.8–7.8) 0.1 2.6 (0.7–9.3) 0.1
 CHAQ/HAQ
  =0 193 2.9 ±1.4 38 (20) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  > 0 104 3.7 ±1.6 40 (38) 2.5 (1.5–4.3) 0.001 2.3 (1.3–3.9) 0.004
 JADAS71
  ≤1 96 2.8 ±1.2 16 (17) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  > 1 97 3.7 ±1.6 37 (38) 3.1 (1.6–6.1) 0.001 2.8 (1.4–5.8) 0.004
 DMARDs/biologicse
  No 152 2.8 ±1.3 30 (20) 1.0 (ref.) 1.0 (ref.)
  Yes 215 3.3 ±1.4 66 (31) 1.8 (1.1–3.0) 0.02 2.0 (1.2–3.3) 0.009
  1. JIA juvenile idiopathic arthritis, No. numbers, SD standard deviation, OR odds ratio for Fatigue Severity Scale ≥4, CI confidence interval, ref. reference, ANA anti-nuclear antibody, measured twice at least 3 months apart, HLA-B27 human leucocyte antigen B27, VAS pain self-reported pain measured on a 21-numbered circle visual analogue scale (0 = no pain, 10 = maximum pain), CHQ Child Health Questionnaire, 0–100 (< 40 poor health), PhS physical summary score, PsS psychosocial summary score, CHAQ Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire, age < 18 years, HAQ Health Assessment Questionnaire, age ≥18 years, 0–3 (0 = lowest, 3 = highest), JADAS71 juvenile arthritis disease activity score based on evaluation of 71 joints, score ≤ 1 indicates inactive disease according to Consolaro et al., DMARDs disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs; included methotrexate, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, leflunomide, sulfasalazine and mycophenolate mofetil, biologics biologics drugs; included etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab, golimumab, rituximab, abatacept, anakinra, canakinumab, rilonacept and tocilizumab
  2. aFatigue measured with Fatigue Severity Scale global score, 1–7 (1 = lowest, 7 = highest)
  3. bFatigue Severity Scale ≥4
  4. cAdjusted for age and sex
  5. dAll Finnish participants excluded due to missing pain scores at baseline
  6. eUse of DMARDs and/or biologics from baseline to 8-year visit