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Table 4 Risk factors of osteoporosis in childhood

From: Expert panel consensus recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of secondary osteoporosis in children

Modifiable Nutritional • Caloric intake
• Protein intake
• Calcium intake
• Phosphorus intake
• Vitamin D
• Others (vitamins K, group B, Mg, K …)
Lifestyle • Solar exposure
• Physical exercise
• Tobacco
• Alcohol
Partly modifiable High risk diseases • Prematurity
• Pregnancy and nursing in adolescents
• Intestinal malabsorption
• Cystic fibrosis
• Celiac disease
• Inflammatory bowel disease
• Food allergies
• Chronic lactose intolerance
• Chronic liver disease
• Chronic kidney disease
• Cerebral palsy
• Chronic rheumatic diseases …
Hormonal • Treatment with glucocorticoids
• Hyperparathyroidism
• Hypogonadism
Non- modifiable Genetics  
Sex
Ethnicity