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Table 1 Demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics based on pain type in subjects with amplified pain (N = 636)

From: The spectrum of pediatric amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome

Variables All
(N = 636)
Limited pain*
(N = 290)
Diffuse pain*
(N = 346)
P-value
Demographics, N (%)
 Sex, female 509 (80%) 218 (75%) 291 (84%) < 0.01
Race
 Caucasian 502 (79%) 232 (80%) 270 (78%) 0.55
 Black 53 (8%) 21 (7%) 32 (9%) 0.36
 Other 78 (12%) 35 (12%) 43 (12%) 0.89
 Ethnicity, non-Hispanic 581 (91%) 260 (90%) 321 (93%) 0.37
 Age, median (IQR|) 14 (12–16) 14 (12–15) 15 (13–16) < 0.001
 BMI, median (IQR) 22 (19–26) 21 (19–26) 19 (17–22) 0.56
 Meet 2010 ACR Fibromyalgia Criteria 222 (35%) 23 (8%) 199 (58%) < 0.0001
Patient Reported Outcome Measures, Median (IQR)
 Current pain (0–10) 5 (3–7) 5 (2–7) 6 (4–7) <.0001
 Most pain (0–10) 9 (8–10) 9 (8–10) 10 (8–10) < 0.01
 Least pain (0–10) 3 (1–5) 3 (0–4) 4 (2–6) <.0001
 Patient FDI (0–60) 22 (13–31) 19 (10–28) 25 (17–33) <.0001
 Parent FDI (0–60) 22 (12–31) 18 (10–27) 25 (15–32) <.0001
 WPI Score (scored 0–19) 6 (2–10) 2 (1–3) 10 (7–14) <.0001
 SSS (scored 0–12) 6 (3–8) 4 (2–6) 7 (5–9) <.0001
 Duration of symptoms (months) 18 (8–36) 12 (7–36) 24 (9–48) < 0.01
 History of trigger event^ 181 (28%) 98 (34%) 83 (24%) < 0.01
 Attend Traditional School, yes [N, (%)] 344 (54%) 172 (59%) 172 (50%) 0.02
 Transient autonomic changes§, yes [N, (%)] 87 (14%) 40 (14%) 47 (14%) 0.94
Self-reported Cognitive and/or Psychological Issues, N (%)
 Anxiety / Panic attacks 288 (45%) 108 (37%) 180 (52%) < 0.001
 Depression 173 (27%) 52 (18%) 121 (35%) <.0001
 Obsessive Compulsive Disorder 55 (9%) 18 (6%) 37 (11%) 0.04
 Previous outpatient mental health care 421 (66%) 177 (61%) 244 (71%) 0.01
Previous psychiatric hospitalization 33 (5%) 7 (2%) 26 (8%) < 0.01
 Suicide attempt 21 (3%) 6 (2%) 15 (4%) 0.12
Suicide ideation 117 (18%) 36 (12%) 81 (23%) < 0.001
Adverse Childhood Experiences, N (%)
 Household member Attempted/Committed Suicide 6 (1%) 1 (< 1%) 5 (2%) 0.23
 Household member went to Prison 5 (1%) 2 (1%) 3 (1%) 1.00
 Parents are Divorced/Separated 123 (19%) 45 (16%) 78 (23%) 0.03
 Parents or other household member with Alcohol/Drug problem 12 (2%) 3 (1%) 9 (3%) 0.24
 Verbal/Physical/Sexual Abuse 7 (1%) 2 (1%) 5 (2%) 0.46
 Other adverse childhood experiences 82 (13%) 39 (14%) 43 (12%) 0.70
Number of Adverse Childhood Experiences, N (%)
 0 445 (70%) 211 (73%) 234 (68%) 0.24
 1 151 (24%) 67 (23%) 84 (24%)
 2 31 (5%) 10 (4%) 21 (6%)
 3 6 (1%) 2 (1%) 4 (1%)
 4 3 (< 1%) 0 3 (1%)
Type of Pain, N (%)
 Constant 487 (77%) 216 (74%) 271 (78%) 0.04
 Intermittent 117 (18%) 61 (21%) 56 (16%)
 Constant and intermittent 26 (4%) 8 (3%) 18 (5%)
 No pain 6 (1%) 5 (2%) 1 (< 1%)
  1. Missing data: race (3), ethnicity (7), BMI (7), 2010 ACR fibromyalgia criteria (57), current pain (1), most pain (3), least pain (2), FDI patient (9), FDI parent (10), WPI (57), SSS (57), pain duration (1)
  2. Abbreviations: N number of subjects, IQR Interquartile Range, BMI body mass index, ACR American College of Rheumatology, FDI Functional Disability Index, WPI Widespread Pain Index, SSS Symptom Severity Score
  3. *Subjects with < 5 painful body regions categorized in Limited Pain and, subjects with ≥5 painful body regions categorized in Diffuse Pain
  4. P-value statistically significant if < 0.05
  5. Based on 2010 American College of Rheumatology fibromyalgia criteria, subjects are categorized into two groups – meet the criteria if their WPI ≥ 7 and SSS ≥ 5 or WPI 3–6 and SSS ≥ 9, symptoms present for at least 3 months and absence of a disorder that explains the pain; and not meeting the criteria if not meet any of these conditions
  6. ^History of trigger event includes: major trauma, minor trauma, illness or surgery
  7. §Autonomic changes categories: subjects could report or demonstrate an autonomic change (including temperature change, cyanosis, edema) in > 1 category
  8. Previous outpatient mental health care defined as seen at least once by a counselor/therapist/psychologist for pain
  9. Subjects could report more than one