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Table 2 Concentrations of heavy metals in cord blood. P-values, versus controls, from independent samples t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Dietary fish intake during pregnancy, dichotomized to either low intake (< 1 per week) or moderate-high intake (≥1 per week). P-values from independent samples t-test

From: Heavy metals in fish and its association with autoimmunity in the development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a prospective birth cohort study

       Fish consumption  
Controls JIA p ANA+ p < 1 per week ≥ 1 per week p
(n = 40) (n = 42)   (n = 11)   (n = 49) (n = 30)  
Aluminium, Al (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 6.1 (4.8) 11.2 (9.7) < 0.001 15.4 (12.9) < 0.001 8.1 (7.3) 10.1 (9.6) 0.261
 Median (Range) 5.0 (5.0–34.0) 7.0 (5.0–47.2) 12.1 (5.0–47.2) 6.0 (5.0–41.4) 7.0 (5.0–47.2)
Cadmium, Cd (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 0.07 (0.08) 0.19 (0.50) < 0.001 0.18 (0.30) < 0.001 0.11 (0.19) 0.16 (0.45) 0.003
 Median (Range) 0.05 (0.05–0.47) 0.07 (0.05–3.12) 0.08 (0.05–1.08) 0.07 (0.05–1.08) 0.07 (0.05–3.12)
Mercury, Hg (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 0.24 (0.08) 0.33 (0.14) < 0.001 0.33 (0.17) 0.067 0.28 (0.13) 0.31 (0.11) 0.011
 Median (Range) 0.20 (0.20–0.53) 0.30 (0.20–1.01) 0.29 (0.20–0.65) 0.21 (0.20–1.01) 0.30 (0.20–0.65)
Lithium, Li (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 1.01 (0.04) 2.79 (6.03) < 0.001 6.21 (11.41) < 0.001 1.31 (0.70) 3.01 (7.14) 0.015
 Median (Range) 1.00 (1.00–1.22) 1.00 (1.00–39.40) 2.08 (1.00–39.40) 1.00 (1.00–4.14) 1.00 (1.00–39.40)
Lead, Pb (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 0.64 (0.50) 0.52 (0.06) 0.902 0.53 (0.08) 0.952 0.58 (0.44) 0.56 (0.18) 0.790
 Median (Range) 0.5 (0.5–3.5) 0.5 (0.5–0.8) 0.5 (0.5–0.8) 0.5 (0.5–3.5) 0.5 (0.5–1.3)
Zinc, Zn (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 1070 (521) 1039 (256) 0.412 1184 (375) 0.216 1061 (418) 1062 (404) 0.998
 Median (Range) 966 (683–3600) 984 (665–1780) 1030 (707–1780) 996 (683–3600) 960 (665–1062)
Copper, Cu (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 417 (106) 509 (281) 0.516 490 (171) 0.291 473 (239) 512 (286) 0.997
 Median (Range) 408 (257–579) 432 (233–1540) 425 (291–866) 424 (233–1460) 489 (259–1540)
Arsenic, As (μg/L)
 Mean (SD) 1.09 (0.27) 2.04 (1.96) 0.053 1.45 (0.95) 0.112 1.88 (1.77) 1.86 (1.90) 0.957
 Median (Range) 1.0 (1.0–1.9) 1.0 (1.0–9.3) 1.0 (1.0–4.2) 1.0 (1.0–9.3) 1.0 (1.0–7.9)
Magnesium, Mg (mg/L)
 Mean (SD) 16.6 (1.9) 16.9 (2.6) 0.780 17.0 (4.0) 0.944 16.6 (1.9) 17.4 (2.7) 0.223
 Median (Range) 16.7 (12.7–19.4) 16.8 (10.5–26.4) 16.7 (10.5–26.4) 16.7 (12.3–19.8) 17.3 (12.6–26.4)
Iron, Fe (mg/L)
 Mean (SD) 2.97 (1.70) 2.44 (1.58) 0.450 2.65 (2.76) 0.275 2.67 (1.30) 2.43 (1.94) 0.598
 Median (Range) 2.2 (1.6–6.7) 2.1 (0.0–10.4) 1.8 (0.0–10.4) 2.2 (1.2–6.7) 2.0 (0–10.4)
  1. Statistically significant p-values in bold