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Table 1 Risk of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) and Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) according to dietary fish intake and family history. OR and p-values from logistic regression. Classification according to ILAR criteria. The number and proportion of patients in each category

From: Heavy metals in fish and its association with autoimmunity in the development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a prospective birth cohort study

  Controls JIA ANA+
  Multivariable logistic regression model analysis vs controls §
   aOR (95% CI) p   aOR (95% CI) p
Fish more than once a week during pregnancy (n = 15,730) (n = 41)    (n = 10)   
 All fish 4764 (31%) 19 (46%) 4.5 (1.9–10.4) < 0.001 6 (60%) 2.2 (1.4–3.6) 0.002
 Fish from Baltic Sea 791 (6%) 4 (10%) 2.3 (1.1–5.0) 0.034 3 (30%) 7.6 (1,9–30.2) 0.001
 Fish from lake 255 (2%) 0 (0%) 0 0.74 0 (0%) 0 1.000
 Other fish 4042 (26%) 17 (42%) 2.6 (1.3–5.1) 0.009 5 (50%) 5.5 (0.8–14,7) 0.085
Fish more than once a week during the baby’s first year (n = 10,473) (n = 31)    (n = 8)   
 All fish 4547 (43%) 24 (77%) 5.1 (2.1–12.4) < 0.001 8 (100%) * 0.001
 Fish from Baltic Sea 1582 (15%) 9 (29%) 2.3 (1.1–5.1) 0.035 4 (50%) 5.6 (1.4–22.6) 0.014
 Fish from lake 458 (4%) 1 (3%) 0.7 (0.097–5.2) 0.74 0 (0%) 0 1.000
 Other fish 3387 (32%) 17 (55%) 2.9 (1.4–5.9) 0.005 5 (63%) 1.7 (1.1–2.7) 0.016
Family history / Heredity for JIA/RA
 Mother with RA (n) 157 (1%) 1 (2%) 2.5 (0.3–18.5) 0.362    
 Father with RA (n) 64 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 1.000    
 Siblings with JIA/RA (n) 48 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 1.000    
 2nd degree family member with RA (n) 1431 (9%) 8 (20%) 1.3 (1.0–1.5) 0.022    
Category at Onset (ILAR) (n)
 Oligoarticular†   19 (46%)      
 Polyarticular‡   5 (12%)      
 Enthesitis-related arthritis   4 (10%)      
 Psoriatic arthritis   4 (10%)      
 Systemic   5 (12%)      
 Unclassifiable   4 (10%)      
  1. §heredity for rheumatism (JIA or RA in first- and second-degree relatives), parity, mode of delivery, preterm birth, duration of (exclusive and total) breastfeeding introduction of formula, mother’s civil status, parental age, education, smoking habits, and whether or not the parents were born outside Sweden
  2. *Logistic regression not possible. P-value from Chi-square, statistically significant p-values and OR in bold
  3. †Patients with oligoarticular disease, not possible to classify as extended or persistent because of missing data
  4. ‡Patients with polyarticular disease, not possible to classify as RF positive or negative because of missing data