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Table 4 Muscle outcomes assessed by dynamometry and mechanography in those participants that completed the study (n = 13). Values are mean (standard deviation) at baseline, 3-, 6- and 12-months and adjusted mean change (95% confidence interval) for change from baseline to 3-, 6- and 12-months

From: Feasibility and safety of a 6-month exercise program to increase bone and muscle strength in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Variable Baseline 3-months 6-months 12-months Baseline-3 monthsc Baseline-6 monthsc Baseline-12 monthsc
Grip strength, left (kg) 19.5 (6.3) 19.6 (6.1) 19.8 (6.8) 21.6 (6.1) −0.8 (−2.2, 0.6) −1.5 (−3.2, 0.2) −0.7 (2.9, 1.5)
Grip strength, right (kg) 20.9 (6.0) 22.3 (7.5) 22.0 (6.6) 23.7 (.1) 0.6 (−0.6, 1.9) −0.4 (−1.9, 1.0) 0.5 (−1.4, 2.4)
Peak power (W/kg) 37.8 (5.5) 39.3 (7.3) 38.2 (5.5) 39.3 (5.9) 0.8 (−1.1, 2.7) −0.9 (−3.3, 1.4) − 0.7 (− 3.6, 2.3)
Peak power z-score − 0.79 (0.95) −0.58 (0.98) − 0.84 (0.94) −0.70 (0.91) 0.13 (− 0.21, 0.47) −0.20 (− 0.61, 0.21) −0.15 (− 0.67, 0.37)
Peak force, right leg (Fmax/BW) 2.84 (0.40) 2.82 (0.39) 2.80 (0.33) 2.90 (0.33) −0.00 (− 0.01, 0.01) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.00) 0.21 (0.19, 0.22)a
Peak force, right leg z-score −0.82 (1.18) − 0.52 (1.30) −0.95 (1.16) − 0.63 (1.07) 0.31 (− 0.14, 0.75) −0.12 (− 0.66, 0.41) 0.21 (− 0.48, 0.89)
Peak force, left leg 2.75 (0.42) 2.94 (0.41) 2.74 (0.31) 2.80 (0.36) −0.01 (− 0.02, 0.00) −0.02 (− 0.03, − 0.003)b 0.19 (0.17, 0.21)a
Peak force, left leg z-score − 1.15 (1.36) −0.88 (1.25) −1.16 (1.06) − 1.02 (1.28) 0.15 (− 0.29, 0.59) −0.23 (− 0.78, 0.30) −0.23 (− 0.91, 0.45)
KE Peak torque (N-m)
 60 °·s 1 182.0 (29.4) 192.5 (38.9) 203.4 (53.1) 219.7 (65.5) −3.4 (−21.9, 15.0) −8.6 (− 31.3, 14.0) − 5.8 (− 33.9, 22.3)
 180 °·s 1 145.1 (27.3) 160.9 (29.5) 167.7 (34.7) 181.3 (49.5) 7.3 (− 4.5, 19.0) 4.5 (−9.9, 19.0) 9.6 (−8.4, 27.6)
KE Average power (W)
 60 °·s 1 44.1 (11.2) 50.3 (15.2) 53.1 (17.4) 56.3 (22.7) 0.1 (−6.5, 6.7) −3.5 (−11.6, 4.6) − 6.7 (− 16.8, 3.3)
 180 °·s 1 91.5 (24.6) 105.6 (25.7) 107.4 (27.1) 112.0 (31.6) 7.0 (−2.4, 16.4) 2.1 (−9.4, 13.6) −1.4 (− 15.7, 12.9)
KE Total joint work (J)
 60 °·s 1 303.5 (91.8) 318.0 (76.6) 322.5 (89.1) 360.7 (107.3) −4.8 (−38.6, 29.0) − 18.8 (− 60.3, 22.6) −2.9 (− 54.3, 48.4)
 180 °·s 1 571.5 (162.1) 635.8 (154.1) 639.9 (156.7) 667.8 (170.2) 31.0 (−26.4, 88.5) 4.2 (−66.2, 74.7) −7.3 (− 94.8, 80.1)
  1. KE knee extensor; ap < 0.001; b p < 0.05; c adjusted for change in height and maturity offset at baseline