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Table 3 Bone outcomes at baseline, 6- and 12-months of those participants who completed the study (n = 13). Values are mean (standard deviation) at baseline and 6- and 12-months and adjusted mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline to 6-months and 12-months

From: Feasibility and safety of a 6-month exercise program to increase bone and muscle strength in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Variable Baseline 6-months 12-months Baseline – 6-months changed Baseline – 12-months changed
LS BMC (g) 32.6 (8.4) 35.0 (8.3) 37.0 (9.1) 0.3 (− 0.9, 1.6) 1.2 (− 0.5, 2.8)
LS BMC z-score −0.09 (0.64) − 0.14 (0.65) − 0.14 (0.65) − 0.04 (− 0.24, 0.16) −0.02 (− 0.28, 0.23)
Distal tibia Tt.BMD (mg/cm3) 223.1 (34.1) 223.8 (28.7) 234.9 (29.5) 2.7 (−5.0, 10.5) 15.0 (5.0, 25.0)a
z-score − 0.98 (1.73) − 1.10 (1.47) − 0.86 (1.60) − 0.15 (− 0.44, 0.13) 0.06 (− 0.30, 0.43)
# with z-score < − 2 3 2 3   
Distal tibia BV/TV 0.141 (0.026) 0.141 (0.022) 0.144 (0.026) −0.001 (− 0.006, 0.004) 0.001 (− 0.005, 0.007)
z-score − 0.74 (1.48) − 0.79 (1.30) − 0.69 (1.46) − 0.08 (− 0.31, 0.15) 0.01 (− 0.29, 0.30)
# with z-score < − 2 4 3 3   
Distal tibia Ct.Th (mm) 0.69 (0.15) 0.69 (0.17) 0.77 (0.14) −0.002 (− 0.054, 0.050) 0.075 (0.009, 0.142)b
z-score −1.35 (1.62) − 1.65 (1.59) − 1.08 (1.62) − 0.62 (− 1.14, − 0.10)d −0.23 (− 0.91, 0.44)
# with z-score < − 2 4 4 2   
Distal tibia F.Load (N) 3628 (845) 3825 (771) 4121 (878) 4.8 (− 204.9, 214.6) 190.2 (−81.1, 461.5)
z-score −1.57 (1.58) − 1.58 (1.14) − 1.33 (1.39) −0.08 (− 0.40, 0.25) 0.13 (− 0.29, 0.55)
# with z-score < − 2 4 4 4   
Distal radius Tt.BMD (mg/cm3)c 251.3 (37.7) 245.5 (29.4) 242.3 (33.8) −0.5 (− 14.2, 13.1) 1.5 (− 16.6, 19.6)
z-score 0.07 (0.83) −0.26 (0.99) − 0.47 (0.90) − 0.42 (− 0.80, − 0.03)d −0.60 (− 1.11, − 0.09)b
# with z-score < − 2 0 0 0   
Distal radius BV/TVc 0.136 (0.022) 0.139 (0.023) 0.135 (0.027) 0.002 (−0.004, 0.007) − 0.004 (− 0.011, 0.004)
z-score −0.50 (0.97) − 0.42 (1.01) −0.67 (1.32) 0.01 (− 0.27, 0.30) −0.27 (− 0.64, 0.10)
# with z-score < − 2 1 1 1   
Distal radius Ct.Th (mm)c 0.62 (0.15) 0.60 (0.13) 0.60 (0.16) 0.03 (−0.03, 0.10) 0.08 (− 0.01, 0.16)
z-score −0.21 (1.01) − 0.61 (0.98) −0.77 (0.83) − 0.36 (− 0.97, 0.24) −0.39 (− 1.18, 0.40)
# with z-score < − 2 0 1 0   
Distal radius F.Load (N)c 1217 (392) 1297 (393) 1301 (375) 27.6 (−43.7, 99.0) − 10.2 (− 105.3, 84.8)
z-score −0.93 (1.47) − 1.02 (1.32) −1.25 (1.37) − 0.22 (− 0.55, 0.12) −0.38 (− 0.83, 0.06)
# with z-score < − 2 3 2 3   
  1. BMC bone mineral content, Tt.BMD total bone mineral density, BV/TV trabecular bone volume ratio, Ct.Th cortical thickness, F.Load failure load
  2. ap < 0.01; bp < 0.05
  3. cn = 12 at baseline and 6-months and n = 11 at 12-months
  4. d Adjusted for change in height and maturity offset at baseline