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Table 3 Univariate analysis of risk factors associated with disease damage

From: Risk factors for damage in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Asians: a case control study

Risk factors No disease damage (n = 39) Disease damage present (n = 20) Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Patient demographics
 Age at diagnosis 13 [12–15] 12 [10–14.8] 0.77 (0.62–0.97) 0.03
 Male 5 (12.8%) 4 (20%) 1.7 (0.40–7.20) 0.47
 Ethnicity (Chinese) 37 (94.9%) 19 (95%) 1.03 (0.09–12.06) 0.98
 Disease duration (years) 7.6 [4.6–11.1] 9.45 [6.4–11.3] 1.08 (0.93–1.26) 0.29
Laboratory data at diagnosis
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) 10.6 [9.5–11.8] 10.6 [6.8–11.8] 0.90 (0.67–1.22) 0.51
 White cell count (× 109/L) 5 [3.5–7.0] 3.95 [3.6–5.7] 0.87 (0.70–1.08) 0.20
 Platelet (×109/L) 161 [85.5–264.0] 211.5 [96.8–257.5] 1 (1–1.01) 0.40
 Serum albumin (g/L) 36 [30.0–40.0] 34 [31.0–36.8] 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 0.64
 Serum creatinine (umol/L) 55 [50.0–68.0] 54 [47.0–69.0] 1 (0.97–1.03) 0.78
 C3 (g/L) 0.52 [0.3–0.8] 0.41 [0.2–0.5] 0.13 (0.01–1.11) 0.06
 C4 (g/L) 0.08 [0.05–0.1] 0.08 [0.04–0.1] 0.03 (0–131.44) 0.40
 Anti-dsDNA titre (IU/mL) 210 [83.5–300.0] 300 [213.3–300.0] 1 (0.99–1.00) 0.52
 SLEDAI score at diagnosis 12 [7.5–14.3] 11.5 [7.3–18.8] 1.05 (0.97–1.14) 0.22
Disease manifestations over the course of disease
 Neuropsychiatric manifestations 1 (2.6%) 8 (40%) 25.33 (2.87–223.62) < 0.01
 Haematological involvement 24 (61.5%) 16 (80%) 2.5 (0.70–8.92) 0.16
 Renal involvement 29 (74.4%) 18 (90%) 3.10 (0.61–15.81) 0.17
 Serositis 5 (12.8%) 5 (25%) 2.27 (0.57–9.01) 0.25
 Number of major organ involvement 1 [1–2] 2 [1.3–3] 2.51 (1.34–4.69) < 0.01
 Positivity of Anti-phospholipid antibody 9 (27.3%) 6 (42.9%) 2 (0.54–7.39) 0.30
Treatment related factors
 Cumulative dose of CYC (mg/kg) 70 [0–140] 7.5 [0–115.8]) 1 (0.99–1.01) 0.83
 Ever use of CYC 20 (51.3%) 15 (75%) 2.85 (0.87–9.38) 0.09
 Ever use of intravenous MP 17 (43.6%) 11 (55%) 1.58 (0.54–4.68) 0.41
Events during the course of disease
 Number of clinical flares 1 [0–4] 5 [0.5–8.8] 1.25 (1.06–1.46) < 0.01
 Episodes of major infection 0 [0–1] 1 [1–3.8] 1.77 (1.11–2.78) 0.02
 SLEDAI score at last visit 2 [0–4] 4 [2–7.5] 1.18 (0.98–1.42) 0.08
  1. Descriptive data represented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%)
  2. Statistically significant variables are highlighted as bold text
  3. CI confidence interval, SLEDAI SLE disease activity index, CYC cyclophosphamide, MP methylprednisolone