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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristic of the 59 patients included in the study

From: Risk factors for damage in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Asians: a case control study

Patient demographics
 Age at diagnosis (year) 13 [12–15]
 Female:male ratio 5.6:1
 Ethnicity
  Chinese 56 (94.9%)
  Others 3 (5.1%)
 Disease duration in years 7.8 [5.5–10.1]
Disease manifestations
 Presence of neuropsychiatric manifestations 9 (15.3%)
 Presence of haematological involvement 40 (67.8%)
 Presence of renal involvement 47 (79.7%)
 WHO class II lupus nephritis 2 (3.3%)
 WHO class III lupus nephritis 10 (16.9%)
 WHO class IV lupus nephritis 30 (50.8%)
 WHO class V lupus nephritis 8 (13.6%)
 Presence of serositis 10 (16.9%)
Drug therapies
 Ever use of hydroxychloroquine 36 (61%)
 Ever use of intravenous methylprednisolone 28 (31.9%)
 Ever use of cyclophosphamide (intravenous or oral) 35 (59.3%)
 Ever use of mycophenolate mofetil/mycophenolic acid 21 (35.6%)
 Ever use of azathioprine 49 (83.1%)
 Ever use of cyclosporine 13 (22%)
 Ever use of intravenous immunoglobulin 7 (11.9%)
 Ever use of rituximab 1 (1.7%)
  1. Descriptive data represented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%)