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Table 2 Henoch-Schönlein Purpura events. (N = 1002)

From: Incidence and risk factors for recurrent Henoch-Schönlein purpura in children from a 16-year nationwide database

  Only one Episode (n = 838), n (%) Recurrent Episode (n = 164), n (%) Crude HR (95% CI)b p value
Sex
 Male 412 (49.2) 91 (55.5) 1.27(0.93–1.73) 0.131
 Female 426 (50.8) 73 (44.5) 1.00  
Age, y
 Mean ± SD 6.85 ± 3.70 7.22 ± 3.37 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 0.224
  0–6 499 (59.5) 82 (50.0) 1.00  
  7–12 268 (32.0) 71 (43.3) 1.55 (1.13–2.13) 0.007
  13–18 71 (8.5) 11 (6.7) 0.95 (0.51–1.79) 0.880
Economics Status
 Normal 771 (92.0) 154 (93.9) 1.00  
 Low income 67 (8.0) 10 (6.1) 0.77 (0.40–1.45) 0.411
Comorbidities
 Asthma 356 (42.5) 68 (41.5) 0.97 (0.71–1.33) 0.866
 Allergic rhinitis 627 (74.8) 139 (84.8) 1.80 (1.18–2.77) 0.006
 Atopic dermatitis 221 (26.4) 47 (28.7) 1.13 (0.80–1.58) 0.484
Clinical course
 GI symptoms 799 (95.3) 161 (98.2) 2.50 (0.80–7.82) 0.116
 Renal symptoms 57 (6.8) 36 (22.0) 3.15 (2.17–4.56) < 0.001
 Joint Pain 111 (13.2) 30 (18.3) 1.39 (0.94–2.07) 0.102
Initiation of Steroid(1st)
 No steroid use 496 (59.2) 67 (40.9) 1.00  
 Early (<  14 days) 19 (2.3) 4 (2.4) 1.50 (0.55–4.12) 0.430
 Late (≥  14 days) 323 (38.5) 93 (56.7) 1.97 (1.44–2.70) < 0.001
Duration of Steroid
No steroid use 496 (59.2) 67 (40.9) 1.00  
 SG (<  10 days) 284 (33.9) 48 (29.3) 1.20 (0.83–1.74) 0.329
 LG(≥  10 days) 58 (6.9) 49 (29.9) 4.98 (3.45–7.21) < 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: HSP Henoch-Schönlein Purpura, SD standard deviation, SG short-term group, LG long-term group, HR Hazard ratio
  2. Cox proportional Regression Analysis
  3. bHazard ratio of 1.00 indicates reference group