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Table 1 Univariate Cox proportional hazard regression modelling looking at time to proteinuric remission

From: Clinical predictors of proteinuric remission following an LN flare - evidence from the UK JSLE cohort study

  Clinical and demographic factors at LN onset Not recovered (n = 39)a Recovered (n = 25)b Hazard Ratio (95% CI) p-value
Factors included within the multivariate model Age at LN onset (yrs) 13.9 (6.4, 17.7) 13.6 (8.1, 17.9) 1.0007 (1.0001, 1.0013) 0.013
S creatinine (micromol/l, NA = 8) 61 (34, 234) 50 (36, 177) 0.991 (0.976, 1.005) 0.184
eGFR (ml/min/m2, NA = 2) 104 (29, 159) 121 (29,153) 1.014 (0.999, 1.028) 0.060
Neutrophil count (× 109/L, NA = 2) 3.4 (1.1, 17.8) 3.44 (0.4, 12.33) 0.932 (0.837, 1.037) 0.197
Physicians global assessment 23 (0, 75) 41 (1, 71) 1.027 (0.994, 1.061) 0.107
Haematological involvementc Y: 33, N: 6 Y: 13, N: 12 0.421 (0.187, 0.952) 0.038
Demographics, clinical features and laboratory investigations LN ISN/RPS renal biopsy classd Class II: 1
Class III: 5
Class IV: 15
Class V: 2
Class II: 3
Class III: 5
Class IV: 10
Class V: 2
0.769 (0.429, 1.378) 0.388
LN at diagnosis or recurrent LN Diagnosis: 33
Recurrent: 6
Diagnosis: 21
Recurrent: 4
0.320 (0.090, 1.138) 0.078
Female gender 32/39 (82%) 18/25 (72%) 1.572 (0.642, 3.852) 0.322
Caucasian ethnicitye 13/39 (33%) 13/25 (52%) 1.404 (0.637, 3.091) 0.421
Length of disease at LN onset (days) 225 (0, 4857) 27 (0, 2679) 0.9999 (0.9994, 1.0005) 0.934
Baseline Proteinuriaf 149 (50, 2772) 252 (51, 1418) 0.9999 (0.9993, 1.0006) 0.989
Severe hypertension (NA = 3)g Y: 6, N: 31 Y: 3, N: 21 0.482 (0.140, 1.671) 0.253
Nephrotic syndrome (NA = 3)h Y: 7, N: 30 Y: 5, N: 19 0.853 (0.318, 2.342) 0.765
Active urinary sediment (NA = 40)i Y: 5, N: 9 Y: 3, N: 7 1.722 (0.402, 7.423) 0.466
Haemoglobin (g/dl) 10.8 (5.6, 96) 11.3 (7.1, 14.9) 0.999 (0.949, 1.052) 0.979
WCC (×109/L) 4.8 (2.5, 22.4) 6.4 (0.5, 9.1) 0.965 (0.885, 1.053) 0.426
Lymphocytes (×109/L, NA = 2) 1.40 (0.1, 5.0) 1.53 (0.1, 5.42) 0.970 (0.670, 1.410) 0.879
Platelets (×109/L) 245 (77, 589) 225 (82, 522) 0.998 (0.995, 1.002) 0.342
ESR (mm/h, NA = 11) 40 (2, 170) 37.5 (4, 102) 0.994 (0.982, 1.006) 0.353
CRP (mg/L, NA = 27) 5 (1, 19) 5 (1, 295) 0.998 (0.991, 1.005) 0.601
C3 (g/L, NA = 7) 0.51 (0.18, 1.61) 0.71 (0.22, 1.31) 1.011 (0.301, 3.400) 0.986
C4 (g/L, NA = 7) 0.06 (0.01, 0.90) 0.07 (0.02, 0.21) 0.282 (0.005, 15.171) 0.537
Anti-dsDNA titres (IU/L, NA = 22) 119 (0, 3503) 220 (42, 3770) 0.999 (0.999, 1.000) 0.577
IgG (g/L, NA = 27) 14.6 (0.9, 70.2) 11.8 (2.8, 33.1) 0.957 (0.895, 1.022) 0.296
IgA (g/L, NA = 28) 2.06 (0.8, 4.9) 2.36 (0.3, 3.7) 0.870 (0.493, 1.542) 0.636
IgM (g/L, NA = 28) 1.11 (0.4, 9.6) (0.07, 2.5) 0.614 (0.271, 1.412) 0.252
Medications at LN onset Hydroxychloroquinej Y: 21, N: 18 Y: 12, N: 13 1.514 (0.663, 3.411) 0.328
Azathioprine Y: 8, N: 31 Y: 2, N: 23 0.520 (0.123, 2.222) 0.377
Mycophenolate Mofetil Y: 10, N: 29 Y: 6, N: 19 1.400 (0.550, 3.590) 0.475
Prednisolone Y: 24, N: 15 Y: 14, N: 11 1.260 (0.560, 2.860) 0.581
Intravenous immunoglobulin Y: 2, N: 37 Y: 2, N: 23 0.790 (0.170, 3.640) 0.762
Rituximab ever Y: 2, N: 37 Y: 1, N: 14 0.373 (0.046, 2.982) 0.351
Cyclophosphamide ever Y: 3, N: 36 Y: 2, N: 23 0.574 (0.132, 2.563) 0.463
ACEi or AT2ik Y: 11, N: 28 Y: 4, N: 21 0.753 (0.263, 2.222) 0.607
Concomitant BILAG defined organ involvement Constitutional involvement Y: 15, N: 24 Y: 15, N: 10 1.410 (0.621, 3.183) 0.411
Mucocutaneous involvement Y: 23, N: 16 Y: 15, N: 10 0.971 (0.431, 2.182) 0.936
Neuropsychiatric involvement Y: 3, N:36 Y: 3, N: 22 0.920 (0.261, 3.231) 0.901
Musculoskeletal involvement Y: 19, N: 20 Y: 14, N: 11 0.612 (0.251, 1.473) 0.272
Cardiorespiratory involvement Y: 3, N: 36 Y: 5, N: 20 1.253 (0.462, 3.422) 0.663
Gastrointestinal involvement Y: 0, N: 39 Y: 3, N: 22 1.311 (0.361, 4.761) 0.680
Ophthalmological involvement Y: 0, N: 39 Y: 2, N: 23 1.082 (0.221, 5.300) 0.919
Total numerical BILAG score 11 (3, 27) 11 (1, 53) 0.980 (0.951, 1.021) 0.424
  1. Summary statistics used for continuous variables in the recovered and not recovered columns (median, min, max), whereas number count was detailed for discrete variables. Missing data shown in brackets with NA. p-values are from univariate Cox Proportion hazard models. aNot recovered = not attained proteinuric recovery during the follow up period. bRecovered = attained proteinuric recovery defined as if their spot UPCR or UACR ratio being <25mg/mmol at two consecutive visits. cBILAG defined active organ domain involvement (score of A or B). dActive LN defined in terms of having either renal biopsy defined active LN (ISN/RPS score), 32 or renal BILAG domain score of A or B. 43/64 patients had renal biopsy defined LN and 21/64 had renal BILAG defined LN. ePatients grouped as caucasian / non-caucasian for the purposes of the analysis. fBaseline Proteinuria = spot UPAC or UAUC measurements depending on hospital laboratory. gBILAG defined severe hypertension. hNephrotic syndrome = heavy proteinuria (> 50 mg/kg/day or > 3.5 g/day or protein-creatinine ratio > 350 mg/mmol or albumin-creatinine ratio > 350mg/mmol) + hypoalbuminaemia + oedema. iActive urine sediment = pyuria (> 5 WCC/hpf), haematuria (> 5 RBC/hpf) or red cell casts in absence of other causes. jMedication use (yes) or non-use (no) considered rather than absolute drug dose. kACEi or AT2i = Angiotensin inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker