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Table 1 Evidence for the involvement of the microbiome in JIA

From: The human microbiome and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Author & year Patients & healthy controls (n) Medication use Study conclusion
Aberrations in mucosal homeostasis
 Malin 1996 [54] Oligo-JIA (19)
Poly-JIA (6)
ERA (1)
HC (26)
Mixed ↑ Bacterial urease activity in faeces of JIA patients
 Picco 2000 [56] Oligo-JIA (26)
Mixed other (14)
Unknown ↑ Intestinal permeability in all subtypes of JIA
Microbiota composition
 Hissink-Müller 2013 [57] Poly-JIA (8)
HC (24)
DMARD naive ↓ Firmicutes in JIA patients
 Tejesvi 2016 [11] Oligo-JIA (13)
Poly-JIA (16)
ERA (1)
HC (27)
DMARD naive ↓ Bacteroidetes;↓ Firmicutes in JIA Genera Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria only present in JIA
Childhood antibiotic use
 Horton 2015 [13] JIA (152)
HC (1520)
Unknown Association between antibiotic exposure and JIA (dose and time-dependent);
No association with nonbacterial antimicrobial agents
 Arvonen 2015 [12] JIA (1298)
HC (5179)
Unknown Association between antibiotic exposure and JIA (dose-dependent);
strongest for lincosamides and cephalosporins
  1. Abbreviations: HC healthy control, ERA enthesitis-related arthritis; ↑ = increased, ↓ = decreased