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Table 2 Characteristics of the material and results in studies on exposure to antibiotics and risk of juvenile idiopathic arthritis by Horton et al. [30] and Arvonen et al. [31]

From: Gut microbiota-host interactions and juvenile idiopathic arthritis

  Horton et al. Arvonen et al.
United Kingdom Finland
Cases = 152, Controls = 1520 Cases = 1298, Controls = 5179
Risk of later development of JIA after exposure to OR (95 % CI)a P OR (95 % CI)b P
Any antibiotics 2.1 (1.2 to 3.5) 0 .007 1.6 (1.3 to 1.9) <0.001
Anaerobic antibiotics onlyc 1.6 (1.0 to 2.6) 0.040 1.3 (1.04 to 1.7) 0.021
Non-anti-anaerobic onlyc 1.6 (1.1 to 2.3) 0.009 1.2 (0.9 to 1.7) 0.216
Both non-anti-anaerobic and anti-anaerobic antibioticsc NA NA 1.4 (1.1 to 1.8) <0.001
Dose response yes   yes  
  1. aModels adjusted for matching, any infection, and any personal autoimmune disease (AID)
  2. bModel adjusted for the number of antiobiotic regiments before index day
  3. cFor this analysis, anti-anaerobic antibiotics were broad spectrum penicillins, clindamycin, metronidazole, and tetracyclines (including doxycycline); aerobic antibiotics were cephalosporins, levaquines, macrolides, and sulfonamides