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Table 2 Non-invasive methods for investigation of cardiovascular function

From: Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A review considering preventive measures

Measurement Abbreviation Principle References
Coronary artery calcification CAC Arterial wall structure, atherosclerotic plaques [7, 29, 37]
Intimal and Medial thickness of the wall in carotis or aorta cIMT (carotis) , aIMT (aorta) Arterial wall structure [21, 26, 29, 71]
Left ventricle mass index LVMi Left ventricular dimensions adjusted for height, weight, age, and sex [32]
Pulse wave velocity PWV Direct measure of stiffness in large arteries [29, 37, 72, 73]
Augmentation index AIx Indirect measure of arterial stiffness combining arterial and ventricular function [29, 37, 73]
Flow mediated dilation FMD Endothelial cell function [29, 71, 7476]
Glyceryl trinitrate mediated flow GTN-mediated dilation Arterial wall function [71]
Arterial distensibility   Direct measure of stiffness in large arteries [29, 71]
Plasma natriuretic peptide NT-pro-BNP Ventricular dysfunction [77]
Troponin T TnT Myocardial damage [77]