Skip to main content

Table 2 Non-invasive methods for investigation of cardiovascular function

From: Premature subclinical atherosclerosis in children and young adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. A review considering preventive measures

Measurement

Abbreviation

Principle

References

Coronary artery calcification

CAC

Arterial wall structure, atherosclerotic plaques

[7, 29, 37]

Intimal and Medial thickness of the wall in carotis or aorta

cIMT (carotis) , aIMT (aorta)

Arterial wall structure

[21, 26, 29, 71]

Left ventricle mass index

LVMi

Left ventricular dimensions adjusted for height, weight, age, and sex

[32]

Pulse wave velocity

PWV

Direct measure of stiffness in large arteries

[29, 37, 72, 73]

Augmentation index

AIx

Indirect measure of arterial stiffness combining arterial and ventricular function

[29, 37, 73]

Flow mediated dilation

FMD

Endothelial cell function

[29, 71, 7476]

Glyceryl trinitrate mediated flow

GTN-mediated dilation

Arterial wall function

[71]

Arterial distensibility

 

Direct measure of stiffness in large arteries

[29, 71]

Plasma natriuretic peptide

NT-pro-BNP

Ventricular dysfunction

[77]

Troponin T

TnT

Myocardial damage

[77]