Skip to main content

Table 1 Determinants of Access to US Pediatric Specialty Care [13]

From: Policy challenges for the pediatric rheumatology workforce: Part I. Education and economics

Determinant Promotes Obstructs
Income > 200% federal poverty level (FPL) 100-200% FPL ("near poor")
Race White Minority status or ethnicity
Transportation Reliable Inadequate
Parental education High school diploma or higher Failure to complete high school
Patient age 2-5 or 13-17 year olds 6-12 year olds
Geographic proximity* Urban location Distant location
Medical insuranceΔ Present Absent or under-insured
Cultural or language differences Absent Present
  1. Gross annual income for family of 2 at 100% FPL: in the lower 48 states & District of Columbia = $14,710; in Alaska = $18,380; in Hawaii = $16,930 [4].
  2. *Geographic proximity to care does not invariably lead to access.
  3. Δ Although coverage improves the likelihood of access, it is not a guarantee.