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Table 1 Local anesthesia delivery methods* used by pediatric rheumatologists for intra-articular corticosteroid injections

From: Anesthesia for intra-articular corticosteroid injections in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: A survey of pediatric rheumatologists

Method Percent
EMLA†® cream + subcutaneous lidocaine 58.8
Ethyl chloride spray 41.2
EMLA® cream 33.8
Subcutaneous lidocaine  
   Non-buffered lidocaine 29.4
   Routine buffering of lidocaine 7.4
Lidocaine iontophoresis 11.8
  1. * Use of more than one local anesthesia method for IACI was reported by 60% of responding physicians; † Eutectic mixture of topical lidocaine.