Cytokines measurement in JSLE patient plasma and serum. (A) IL-17A was measured in plasma from 19 JSLE patients (n = 19; BILAG -2004, A/B = 10; Score, mean (range) 3.1 (0–11)) and 18 healthy controls. JSLE patient levels were significantly higher IL-17A plasma levels compared to healthy controls p = 0.028. (B) PBMCs were isolated from JSLE (n = 12; BILAG -2004, A/B = 6; Score, mean (range) 2.9 (0–8)) and control (n = 12) patients, all genes are expressed relative to the housekeeping gene RPL13A. IL17A, IL23R, RORC and IL23 mRNA were higher in JSLE PBMCs compared to control with IL17A and IL23 mRNA level reaching statistical significance (p = 0.018 and p = 0.01). Data are shown as the mean ± SEM and a Mann–Whitney U test was performed to determine significance values.