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Table 3 Musculoskeletal abnormalities detected by pGALS in MPS type I (Hurler)

From: Assessment of musculoskeletal abnormalities in children with mucopolysaccharidoses using pGALS

Manoeuvre tested pGALS instruction MPS I (Hurler) (n = 5)
Spinal deformity   15/15 (100%)
Shoulder flexion Reach arms up 13/15 (87%)
TMJ excursion Open mouth wide and try to put 3 fingers inside 13/15 (87%)
Forward flexion of spine Bend forwards. Observe curvature of spine from all sides 11/15 (73%)
Shoulder abduction, external rotation Hands behind neck 11/15 (73%)
Wrist flexion Hands together back to back 10/15 (67%)
Elbow extension Reach up 9/15 (60%)
Gait Observe patient walking 9/15 (60%)
MCP, DIP, PIP extension Hands and wrists together 8/15 (53%)
Neck extension Look up to the ceiling 7/15 (47%)
Wrist extension Hands palm to palm 6/15 (40%)
MCP/DIP/PIP extension Hands out in front 6/15 (40%)
Ankle dorsiflexion Walk on heels 6/15 (40%)
Elbow extension Hands out in front 4/11 (36%)
Cervical spine lateral flexion Touch ear to shoulder 5/15 (33%)
Forearm supination Turn hand over 4/12 (33%)
Opposition of thumb and 3 rd -5 th fingers Touch tips of fingers with thumb 4/15 (27%)
Knee extension Bring ankle up to bottom 2/14 (14%)
Knee flexion 1/15 (7%)
Elbow flexion Put hands behind neck 1/15 (7%)
Elbow flexion Put hands and wrists together 1/15 (7%)
Ankle plantar flexion Walk on tip-toes 0/15 (0%)
MCP/DIP/PIP flexion Make a fist 0/15 (0%)
Opposition of thumb and index finger Touch tip of finger with thumb 0/15 (0%)
  1. Figures stated as number of abnormal observations to number of total observations.