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Table 2 Differences in pain and health status of all participating children

From: Pain experience in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis treated with anti-TNF agents compared to non-biologic standard treatment

  Standard treatment group (n = 50) Anti-TNF agents group (n = 41) Group-differences
  Mean (S.D.) Median Mean (S.D.) Median Mann–Whitney U-test p-values Effect sizes (r)
Arthritis activity: Composite disease activity score 2.8 (2.5) 2.00 0.65 (1.00) 0.00 Z = −4.51 <0.001 0.47
Functional disability: CHAQ dis. index 0.25 (0.37) 0.10 0.30 (0.32) 0.10 Z = −0.01 0.99 0.001
Pain intensity: Mean pain diary score 0.86 (0.88) 0.60 1.03 (1.19) 0.69 Z = −0.49 0.62 0.05
  Number (%) Number (%) Chi 2 -test p-values Effect sizes (phi)
Patients with no pain reported in the pain diary 1 (2.0%) 13 (31.7%) χ2(1) = 15.27 <0.001 0.41
Patients with daily pain reported in the pain diary 12 (24.0%) 12 (29.3%) χ2(1) = 0.32 0.64 0.06