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Table 2 Illness-Related Cognitive Distortions Targeted in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

From: Psychosocial perspectives in the treatment of pediatric chronic pain

Child Cognitive Distortions Parent Cognitive Distortions
Belief that one must restrict activity and involvement until symptoms resolve Hesitation to promote increased activity and independence
Self-image and confidence in interpersonal relationships Fear of worsening patient symptoms by encouraging increased function
Acceptability of assertive communication and behavior Fear of teen relapse leading to overprotection and overreaction to even minor symptoms
Over-emphasis on peer acceptance and “pleasing others” Belief that patient is “faking” or exaggerating symptoms
Over-dependence on others in order to recover from illness Future projection of teen failure due to illness
Setting realistic standards for achievement and success  
Overcoming feelings of invalidation  
Pessimism regarding future health outcome and personal success