The assessment of the spondyloarthritis international society concept and criteria for the classification of axial spondyloarthritis and peripheral spondyloarthritis: A critical appraisal for the pediatric rheumatologist
© Burgos-Vargas; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 18 November 2011
Accepted: 31 May 2012
Published: 31 May 2012
This review refers to the origin and current state of the assessment of the SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) criteria for the classification of axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis (SpA) and the possible implications in the pediatric population. The ASAS criteria evolved from the idea that the earlier the recognition of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, the better the efficacy of tumor necrosis factor blockers. Strategies included the development of new concepts, definitions, and techniques for the study of clinical signs and symptoms. Of relevance, the new definition of inflammatory back pain (IBP) and the introduction of sacroiliitis by magnetic resonance imaging represented the most important advance in the early identification of AS in the “pre-radiographic stage” of the disease. AS is considered in this paper as a disease continuum with symptoms depending on age at onset. The application of those specific strategies in children and adolescents with SpA seems limited because the most important manifestation in the early stage of disease is not IBP, but peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. In this instance, the logical approach to juvenile onset SpA according to ASAS criteria should not be through the axial criteria but rather the peripheral set of criteria.
KeywordsSpondyloarthritis Ankylosing spondylitis Juvenile SpA Juvenile AS Enthesitis related arthritis ASAS criteria
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototype of a group of arthritis conditions collectively called SpA1, which includes undifferentiated SpA (u-SpA), reactive arthritis (ReA), and subsets of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis. The characteristics of these conditions include axial and peripheral enthesitis and arthritis, certain extrarticular manifestations, family aggregation, and HLA-B27 association. The spectrum of SpA spans from early, undifferentiated forms to well-defined diseases such as AS. Despite the fact that u-SpA might be the initial stage of any definite form of SpA, mainly AS, a number of patients may have only a short and mild course of symptoms followed by complete remission of inflammation and no permanent consequences.
In contrast to this mild, self-limited disease, AS is the result of a long-standing process that combines chronic inflammation and new bone formation, mainly at the tendon and ligament attachments to bones. AS is usually characterized by inflammatory back pain (IBP) and morning stiffness, progressive reduction of the spinal mobility, lower-limb joint and entheses involvement, anterior uveitis, and non-specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) . The prevalence of AS in the population is linked to that of HLA-B27 and occurs most frequently in HLA-B27 young males .
Modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis ref.
1. Clinical criteria
Low back pain and stiffness for more tan three months, which improves by exercise, but is not relieved by rest
Limitation of motion of the lumbar spine in both the sagittal and frontal planes
Limitation of chest expansion relative to normal values correlated for age and sex
2. Radiological criterion:
Sacroiliitis grade ≥2 bilaterally or grade 3–4 unilaterally
Definite ankylosing spondylitis is considered if the radiologic criteria is associated with at least one clinical criterion
Probable ankylosing spondylitis if:
Three clinical criteria are present
The radiologic criterion is present without any signs or symptoms satisfying the clinical criteria (other causes of sacroiliitis should be considered)
Grade 0 = normal
Grade 1 = suspicious changes
Grade 2 = minimal abnormality – small localized areas with erosions or sclerosis, without alteration in the joint width
Grade 4 = severe abnormality –total ankylosis.
The term “ankylosing spondylitis” means “stiff vertebrae” (from the Greek ankylos and spondylos). Alternative names, most in disuse, include seronegative polyarthritis, seronegative spondarthritis, seronegative spondyloarthritis, seronegative spondylarthropathies, spondyloarthritides. The stereotypic AS patient has a long-standing and severe disease characterized by spinal deformity and vertebral ankylosis for which no effective therapy has been available. Yet, it is clear that not all patients with AS fit into that stereotype. Moreover, the introduction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blockers has resulted in the control of signs and symptoms related to inflammation and the improvement of most outcome measures, including HRQoL, particularly in patients with a short disease duration.
Within the last ten years, clinicians have tried to recognize and diagnose AS in the early inflammatory stage of the process that ultimately leads to bone proliferation [9, 10]. The purpose of this effort was to treat AS in the early pre-radiographic stage of the disease with TNF-blockers and prevent its long-term consequences. These strategies were utilized to identify the early inflammatory stage of the disease in patients by focusing on the definition, classification, and diagnostic criteria of IBP and SpA, including the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of sacroiliac and vertebral inflammation, as well as the use of HLA-B27 testing. Ultimately, the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) developed concept and classification criteria for axial SpA  and then for peripheral SpA . At the same time, we learned about the efficacy of TNF blockers in controlling inflammation, but probably not in suppressing bone proliferation.
In this paper, the characteristics and development of the ASAS criteria for the classification of axial and peripheral SpA are reviewed. These classification criteria and their possible role in the classification of children and adolescents with SpA are examined by defining and comparing the juvenile and adult criteria as they apply to pre-radiographic AS, AS, u-SpA, and ASAS axial and peripheral SpA.
The relationship between adult and juvenile-onset AS and SpA
Although the most common age at onset of AS is around 25 years, a variable percentage of patients start complaining in childhood or adolescence. Despite the fact that juvenile and adult onset forms differ in their mode of presentation, both forms represent a disease continuum in which age-related factors might play a role in clinical expression. Compared with juvenile onset AS, patients with adult onset disease have a higher prevalence of axial symptoms and, in contrast, a much lower prevalence of peripheral enthesitis and arthritis in the initial years of the disease [13–22]. Inconsistent genetic and minor synovial histologic differences between adults and juvenile patients have been also described [23–26].
The consequences of AS seem more severe in juvenile patients [13, 15–17, 19–22]. Despite the fact that there are no studies comparing other SpA in adult and childhood subjects, the information available up to now on SpA-related, u-SpA, and ReA does not reveal major differences between the two age-at-onset populations. No important differences in pathogenesis or therapeutics have been reported. Thus, the concept that juvenile and adult onset AS represent the same disease has important implications in the clinical and therapeutic field. Indeed, this concept does not consider the subgroup of PsA in younger children (mostly girls, with dactylitis, polyarthritis, and antinuclear antibodies).
In keeping with the traditional idea of Moll and Wright about the SpA group , we conceptualize juvenile-onset SpA, including AS, as a group of HLA-B27–associated pediatric rheumatic diseases characterized by enthesitis and arthritis involving in most cases the lower extremities in the initial years and, in a variable proportion of cases, the sacroiliac and spinal joints some years later . This concept differs from that of the enthesitis related arthritis (ERA) and PsA subgroups of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) classification of the International League for Associations of Rheumatology (ILAR) . In that classification, the overlapping of diagnostic manifestations between two or more subgroups excludes definite diagnosis and puts any such case in the “undifferentiated arthritis” category.
The relationship between u-SpA and AS
Peripheral u-SpA has a childhood counterpart, which is traceable to clinical descriptions embraced under terms such as “probable Still’s disease” , type II (HLA-B27 + boys) oligoarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) , atypical SpA , and most clearly to HLA-B27-associated SpA and enthesopathy in children  as well as the seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy (SEA) syndrome . This progression of juvenile-onset u-SpA to AS starts in most cases with peripheral symptoms and follows a clinical course leading to AS within ten years of disease [55–61] (Figure 1).
In adults with u-SpA, progression to AS has been inconsistently associated with several factors. These include uveitis [41, 46, 48], HLA-B27 [41, 43], alternate gluteal pain , peripheral arthritis , a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate , an elevated C- reactive protein (CRP) , recurrent oligoarthritis , and a low-grade radiographic sacroiliitis . AS risk factors include low-grade radiographic sacroiliitis [46, 62] and uveitis , and buttock pain .
Onset age ≥8 years
Family history of AS
Enthesitis at 6 months*
Enthesitis at 6 months
Enthesitis at 12 months*
Tarsitis at 6 months*
Tarsitis at 12 months*
Hip arthritis at 6 months
IBP/SIJ* pain at 6 months
IBP at 6 months
Prospective data of patients with axial SpA according to ASAS criteria or IBP differ in some important aspects from retrospective studies. These differences are seen in the prospective German Spondyloarthritis Inception Cohort (GESPIC) , the Maastricht’s early SpA clinic population (ESPAC) , as well as the Leeds , and French (Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes or DESIR)  IBP clinics.
GESPIC  consisted of 462 patients with axial SpA, including 236 with AS of whom 50.4% had already developed AS within five years of symptoms. In these patients, male sex was predictive of radiographic sacroiliitis and >1 syndesmophyte and CRP ≤6 mg/L for >1 syndesmophyte and >1 bridging syndesmophyte. In ESPAC , 14 patients (21%) out of 68 with IBP had already developed AS within <2 years of symptoms, 24% had PsA and 15% each had IBD and uveitis. In the Leeds clinic data , 13 patients out of 40 (33%) with IBP had AS within two years and the others had PsA SpA (n = 3), ReA SpA (n = 6), IBD SpA (n = 1), and u-SpA (n = 17).
The combination of severe sacroiliitis on MRI and HLA-B27 was highly predictive for AS. The DESIR  study included 708 adults with IBP of <3 years disease duration. Of this group, 184 (26%) had AS, 77% SpA, and 67% axial SpA. HLA-B27 positivity was associated with a younger age at the onset of IBP, less delay in diagnosis, lower frequency of psoriasis, and higher frequencies of sacroiliitis and spondylitis on imaging.
The importance of such prospective studies is that up to one-third of patients with AS fulfill the modified New York criteria for AS within two years of symptoms and 50% by five years. While cohort studies include patients with IBP, those studies in retrospect include a significant number of patients with peripheral symptoms. Despite a trend for male sex, HLA-B27, and uveitis in patients with AS, most features of this peripheral AS disease do not differ from those of patients with axial SpA. Ultimately, these prospective risk factors include some factors already identified in retrospective studies and help define and illustrate the relationships between u-SpA, pre-radiographic AS, and axial and peripheral SpA.
Although Zeidler, et al.  proposed four possible outcomes for u-SpA, only two of them are clearly found in the rheumatology clinic: 1) a subgroup of patients representing the early stage of a definite, well-categorized SpA (for example, AS) and 2) a subgroup consisted of patients with “definite” u-SpA. The stage between the onset of symptoms and the demonstration of radiographic sacroiliitis in patients with u-SpA is the pre-radiographic stage of AS. This recent ability to recognize u-SpA patients in this stage, thereby allowing the earlier use of TNF blockers such as etanercept or infliximab, has appeared to result in better clinical responses ; this improvement has had a major influence in the development of the concept of axial SpA . The initial strategy was the identification of patients with axial symptoms at risk of AS [9–11]; lately, the a new strategy has evolved in focusing on identification of those with peripheral disease at risk of axial SpA .
Rudwaleit, et al.  first calculated the pre-test probability of axial SpA and AS among mostly adult patients with any kind of back pain according to the sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio (LR) of SpA features as appeared in different publications. He built two algorithms to be used in clinical practice, one starting with the identification of IBP in patients with back pain and the other with by HLA-B27 testing alone. The former algorithm increases the probability of having axial SpA (including AS) up to around 90% and the latter up to 59%.
Based on real-world clinical findings, Heuft-Dorenbosch, et al.  proposed changes on the level for placing MRI and HLA-B27 in the algorithm. In another study, IBP, HLA-B27, and sacroiliitis by MRI performed well in detecting axial SpA in patients referred by orthopedists and primary care physicians who had back pain >3 months, and age at onset of <45 years . Ultimately, such criteria and algorithms provide the clinician, particularly the general practitioner and the orthopedic surgeon, with diagnostic strategies to differentiate IBP from mechanical back pain.
There is no such analyses yet in juvenile-onset SpA, but the association of some variables with the development of AS and radiographic sacroiliitis suggest a role for genetic, demographic, and clinical features for the progression of u-SpA to AS (Table 2). Essential in interpreting such information is the recognition that while the development of axial SpA starts with back pain, data on juvenile-onset SpA is derived from JIA and JRA data, conditions whose principal characteristic is not axial disease, but peripheral arthritis.
Axial and peripheral ASAS SpA criteria
Axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society classification criteria
Axial spondyloarthritis ref. 
Peripheral spondyloarthritis ref. 
Individuals <45 years with back pain >3 months*
Individuals with arthritis or enthesitis or dactylitis
Sacroiliitis on MR or X-rays
Additional features needed for classification§
At least one
At least two
At least one
At least two
Inflammatory back pain
Enthesitis (heel pain)
Enthesitis (heel pain)
Inflammatory back pain (ever)
Family history for SpA
Sacroiliitis on imaging
Good response to non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs
Family history for spondyloarthritis
Elevated C reactive protein
The existence of two sets of criteria has academic and research implications, yet their validation in various populations and clinical scenarios are needed before they would be widely used in clinical practice;
The cost of MRI and HLA-B27 testing may limit the applicability of ASAS criteria in countries with budget restrictions or in segments of the population not covered by any health security system;
Despite the fact that the definition of some variables listed in both axial and peripheral SpA criteria differ from each other to avoid classification overlaps, the existence of different definitions may be confusing (Table 4);
Except for radiographic sacroiliitis, signs and symptoms in the ASAS criteria for SpA refer to active inflammatory and not structural damage; and
Regarding nomenclature, the term “peripheral SpA” may appear to be contradictory in itself and confusing
Definitions of parameters applied in the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis
Axial SpA ref. 
Peripheral SpA ref. 
According to experts (14): ≥4 out of 5 parameters present: (1) age at onset 40 years; (2) insidious onset; (3) improvement with exercise; (4) no improvement with rest; (5) pain at night (with improvement upon getting up)
IBP in the past according to the rheumatologist’s judgment.
In patients with current IBP (and concomitant peripheral manifestations), the ASAS classification criteria for axial SpA should be applied
Past or present active synovitis diagnosed by a physician
Current peripheral arthritis compatible with SpA (usually asymmetric and/or predominant involvement of the lower limbs), diagnosed clinically by a doctor
Heel enthesitis: past or present spontaneous pain or tenderness at examination of the site of the insertion of the Achilles tendon or plantar fascia at the calcaneus.
Enthesitis: past or present spontaneous pain or tenderness at examination of an entheses.
Any site of enthesitis can be affected whereas in the ASAS classification criteria for axial SpA only enthesitis of the heel is considered.
Past or present uveitis anterior, confirmed by an ophthalmologist
Past or present dactylitis, diagnosed by a physician
Past or present psoriasis, diagnosed by a physician
Past or present Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis diagnosed by a physician
Good response to NSAIDs
24–48 h after a full dose of a NSAID the back pain is not present any more or is much better
Family history of SpA
Presence in first-degree (mother, father, sisters, brothers, children) or second-degree (maternal and paternal grandparents, aunts, uncles, nieces and nephews) relatives of any of the following: (1) AS; (2) psoriasis; (3) acute uveitis; (4) reactive arthritis; (5) IBD
CRP concentration above upper normal limit in the presence of back pain, after exclusion of other causes for elevated CRP concentration.
Positive testing according to standard laboratory techniques
Bilateral grade 2–4 or unilateral grade 3–4 sacroiliitis on plain radiographs, according to the modified New York criteria ref. 
SI by MRI
Active inflammatory lesions of sacroiliac joints with definite bone marrow edema/osteitis, suggestive of sacroiliitis associated with SpA
Urethritis/cervicitis or diarrhoea within 1 month before the onset of arthritis/enthesitis/dactylitis
The role of axial and peripheral SpA criteria in children and adolescents
ASAS criteria for axial and particularly peripheral SpA may have important implications for the recognition of children and adolescents with SpA and the understanding of the relationship between juvenile and adult SpA. Children and adults would be classified under the same criteria, the long-term follow-ups of children with SpA would be more easily carried out, and the results of clinical trials and management would be interchangeable to some extent.
Where do this leave us?
Is there a rationale for alternative criteria for children with ERA, PsA, and undifferentiated arthritis according to ILAR criteria? ERA and PsA (and perhaps some cases of undifferentiated arthritis) are the subgroups representing juvenile-onset SpA in the ILAR JIA classification criteria for JIA . The concept of ERA and PsA in ILAR JIA classification does not correspond to the traditional concept of SpA because such ILAR criteria precludes the overlapping of inclusion criteria among different subgroups. Thus, the features that link ERA and PsA as SpA are the ones that may be thought to make them incompatible with each other. In contrast, the concept of SpA behind the ASAS axial and peripheral SpA criteria [11, 12] reflects the Moll and Wright’s  original idea of clinical overlaps between the different diseases. This author’s opinion is that we need common concepts and criteria if we want to keep juvenile and adult onset types of SpA as a disease continuum. Amor, et al.  and ESSG  criteria have been validated in children and at least the latter has been used to some extent (Table 5). Today, ASAS axial and peripheral SpA criteria might be a good substitute for Amor, et al.  and ESSG criteria and perhaps a good alternative to ILAR criteria . Regarding nomenclature, it seems more appropriate for pediatric rheumatologists to use of the ILAR terms ERA and PsA than the contradictory term “peripheral SpA” since most children and adolescents have peripheral disease and rarely axial symptoms.
If needed, which set of ASAS criteria is more appropriate for children, axial or peripheral? It seems clear that axial and peripheral SpA classifications have different purposes. While the former  is intended to identify the spinal and sacroiliac involvement in the early inflammatory stage of AS, the latter  relies on peripheral arthritis, enthesitis, and dactylitis as entry criteria (Table 3).Regarding axial involvement, children and adolescents may have both active sacroiliitis on MRI (Figure 3) and radiographic sacroiliitis grade 2 bilateral or grades 2 or 4 unilateral (Figure 4), but in most cases these events occur in association with peripheral arthritis and enthesitis (Figure 5).Axial symptoms, as isolated features, are unusual in youngsters. The ASAS axial SpA criteria suggest the need for a history of back pain for at least three months as entry criteria before performing MRI and/or radiographic studies of the sacroiliac joints. There seems to be no clear clinical rationale to perform MRI studies of the sacroiliac joints and the spine in children in the absence of back pain. Certainly, the logical criteria for children and adolescents is the ASAS peripheral SpA criteria since they include the most important signs and symptoms in patients with juvenile-onset SpA.Except for “good response to NSAIDs”, on that no specific reports in children exist, children and adolescents with juvenile-onset SpA could well fulfill all axial and peripheral ASAS SpA criteria (Table 6). The diagnostic properties of some of these criteria were determined during the validation of the Amor et al.  and ESSG  classification criteria of SpA  and in a comparative study of juvenile-onset AS and u-SpA with JRA . As expected, the sensitivity of back pain in the validation study of SpA according ESSG  was very low, but its specificity very high (Table 5). In the latter study, sensitivity, specificity, and + LR of tarsitis and enthesopathy were very high suggesting that tarsitis should be considered an additional criterion in any classification criteria (Figure 6). The frequency of each criterion depends on the classification category. By definition, for example, IBP and radiographic sacroiliitis should be found in all patients with AS, whereas arthritis or enthesitis should be found in all patients with ERA. On the other hand, the definition of each criterion and its diagnostic value should be assessed in children. The question of whether ASAS criteria for axial and peripheral SpA [11, 12] have any role in the classification of children with SpA, ERA, PsA, and even undifferentiated arthritis remains to be determined. Ideally, all related clinical conditions in children and adults should be encompassed under the same criteria in order to facilitate scientific communication and patients transition from childhood to adulthood medical care. From the therapeutic point of view, there should be some advantages if the management of juvenile and adult onset forms could have the same opportunity to be treated in the early inflammatory stage of the disease.
European Spondylarthropathy Study Group classification criteria and results of their validation in children
Inflammatory back pain or synovitis –symmetric or predominantly in the lower limbs plus
one of the following
Positive family history
Inflammatory bowel disease
Urethritis, cervicitis, or acute diarrhea within one month before arthritis
Buttock pain alternating between right and left gluteal areas
Estimated prevalence of each of the items listed in the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society classification criteria for axial and peripheral spondyloarthritis in the different categories of juvenile onset disease in children and adolescents*
Enthesitis related arthritis
Psoriatic arthritis not related to spondyloarthritis
Sacroiliitis on MRI
Sacroiliitis on X-rays
Inflammatory back pain
Enthesitis (heel pain)
Good response to NSAIDs
Family history for SpA
Elevated C reactive protein
The dilemma of how to apply adult AS and related SpA criteria to children has challenged pediatric rheumatologists for decades. The ILAR JIA criteria for PsA and ERA do not corresponds well with adult AS criteria. The new ASAS criteria offer rheumatologists a chance to reexamine how children with SpA, ERA, PsA, and undifferentiated arthritis can fit and not fit into these new criteria. Adult and pediatric rheumatologists want to diagnose these patients described by the ASAS criteria early and be able to offer these patients aggressive TNF inhibitor therapy, when possible and affordable, to possibly prevent joint and bone damage.
The application of those specific strategies in children and adolescents with SpA is challenging as the most important manifestation in the early stage of disease is not inflammatory back pain as it is in adults, but peripheral arthritis and enthesitis. In this instance, the best approach to juvenile onset SpA according to ASAS criteria may be not to use the axial criteria but rather to use the peripheral set of criteria. The question of whether pediatric rheumatology needs new separate criteria for SpA, ERA, PsA, and undifferentiated arthritis remains controversial and goes against our need to encompass such similar adult and pediatric diseases under the umbrella of one set of criteria.
- Braun J, Sieper J: Ankylosing spondylitis. Lancet. 2007, 369 (9570): 1379-1390. 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60635-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weisman MH, Reveille JD, van der Heijde D: Ankylosing Spondylitis and the Spondyloarthropathies: A Companion to Rheumatology. 2006, Mosby, Philadelphia, 1Google Scholar
- van der Linden S, Valkenburg HA, Cats A: Evaluation of diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. A proposal for modification of the New York criteria. Arthritis Rheum. 1984, 27 (4): 361-368. 10.1002/art.1780270401.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kobelt G, Andlin-Sobocki P, Maksymowych WP: Costs and quality of life of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in Canada. J Rheumatol. 2006, 33 (2): 289-295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ariza-Ariza R, Hernandez-Cruz B, Navarro-Sarabia F: Physical function and health-related quality of life of Spanish patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003, 49 (4): 483-487. 10.1002/art.11197.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chorus AM, Miedema HS, Boonen A, Van Der Linden S: Quality of life and work in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis of working age. Ann Rheum Dis. 2003, 62 (12): 1178-1184. 10.1136/ard.2002.004861.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bakland G, Gran JT, Nossent JC: Increased mortality in ankylosing spondylitis is related to disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011, 70 (11): 1921-1925. 10.1136/ard.2011.151191.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zochling J, Braun J: Mortality in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2009, 27: (4 Suppl 55)Google Scholar
- Rudwaleit M, van der Heijde D, Khan MA, Braun J, Sieper J: How to diagnose axial spondyloarthritis early. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004, 63 (5): 535-543. 10.1136/ard.2003.011247.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rudwaleit M, Landewe R, van der Heijde D, Listing J, Brandt J, Braun J: The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part I): classification of paper patients by expert opinion including uncertainty appraisal. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009, 68 (6): 770-776. 10.1136/ard.2009.108217.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rudwaleit M, van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Listing J, Akkoc N, Brandt J: The development of Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society classification criteria for axial spondyloarthritis (part II): validation and final selection. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009, 68 (6): 777-783. 10.1136/ard.2009.108233.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rudwaleit M, van der Heijde D, Landewe R, Akkoc N, Brandt J, Chou CT: The Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society classification criteria for peripheral spondyloarthritis and for spondyloarthritis in general. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011, 70 (1): 25-31. 10.1136/ard.2010.133645.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Riley MJ, Ansell BM, Bywaters EG: Radiological manifestations of ankylosing spondylitis according to age at onset. Ann Rheum Dis. 1971, 30 (2): 138-148. 10.1136/ard.30.2.138.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marks SH, Barnett M, Calin A: A case–control study of juvenile- and adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 1982, 9 (5): 739-741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Calin A, Elswood J: The natural history of juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis: a 24-year retrospective case–control study. Br J Rheumatol. 1988, 27 (2): 91-93. 10.1093/rheumatology/27.2.91.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garcia-Morteo O, Maldonado-Cocco JA, Suarez-Almazor ME, Garay E: Ankylosing spondylitis of juvenile onset: comparison with adult onset disease. Scand J Rheumatol. 1983, 12 (3): 246-248. 10.3109/03009748309098542.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R, Naranjo A, Castillo J, Katona G: Ankylosing spondylitis in the Mexican mestizo: patterns of disease according to age at onset. J Rheumatol. 1989, 16 (2): 186-191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baek HJ, Shin KC, Lee YJ, Kang SW, Lee EB, Yoo CD: Juvenile onset ankylosing spondylitis (JAS) has less severe spinal disease course than adult onset ankylosing spondylitis (AAS): clinical comparison between JAS and AAS in Korea. J Rheumatol. 2002, 29 (8): 1780-1785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stone M, Warren RW, Bruckel J, Cooper D, Cortinovis D, Inman RD: Juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis is associated with worse functional outcomes than adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005, 53 (3): 445-451. 10.1002/art.21174.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gensler LS, Ward MM, Reveille JD, Learch TJ, Weisman MH, Davis JC: Clinical, radiographic and functional differences between juvenile-onset and adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis: results from the PSOAS cohort. Ann Rheum Dis. 2008, 67 (2): 233-237. 10.1136/ard.2007.072512.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- O’Shea FD, Boyle E, Riarh R, Tse SM, Laxer RM, Inman RD: Comparison of clinical and radiographic severity of juvenile-onset versus adult-onset ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009, 68 (9): 1407-1412. 10.1136/ard.2008.092304.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ozgocmen S, Ardicoglu O, Kamanli A, Kaya A, Durmus B, Yildirim K: Pattern of disease onset, diagnostic delay, and clinical features in juvenile onset and adult onset ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 2009, 36 (12): 2830-2833. 10.3899/jrheum.090435.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ploski R, Flato B, Vinje O, Maksymowych W, Forre O, Thorsby E: Association to HLA-DRB1*08, HLA-DPB1*0301 and homozygosity for an HLA-linked proteasome gene in juvenile ankylosing spondylitis. Hum Immunol. 1995, 44 (2): 88-96. 10.1016/0198-8859(95)00063-A.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maksymowych WP, Jhangri GS, Gorodezky C, Luong M, Wong C, Burgos-Vargas R: The LMP2 polymorphism is associated with susceptibility to acute anterior uveitis in HLA-B27 positive juvenile and adult Mexican subjects with ankylosing spondylitis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1997, 56 (8): 488-492. 10.1136/ard.56.8.488.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maksymowych WP, Gorodezky C, Olivo A, Alaez C, Wong C, Burgos-Vargas R: HLA-DRB1*08 influences the development of disease in Mexican Mestizo with spondyloarthropathy. J Rheumatol. 1997, 24 (5): 904-907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kruithof E, Van den Bossche V, De Rycke L, Vandooren B, Joos R, Canete JD: Distinct synovial immunopathologic characteristics of juvenile-onset spondylarthritis and other forms of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2006, 54 (8): 2594-2604. 10.1002/art.22024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wright and Moll: Seronegative Polyarthritis. Amsterdam. 1976, Elsevier/North Holland Publishing,Google Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R, Pacheco-Tena C, Vazquez-Mellado J: Juvenile-onset spondyloarthropathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1997, 23 (3): 569-598. 10.1016/S0889-857X(05)70348-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petty RE, Southwood TR, Manners P, Baum J, Glass DN, Goldenberg J: International League of Associations for Rheumatology classification of juvenile idiopathic arthritis: second revision, Edmonton, 2001. J Rheumatol. 2004, 31 (2): 390-392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boyer GS, Templin DW, Bowler A, Lawrence RC, Heyse SP, Everett DF: Spondyloarthropathy in the community: clinical syndromes and disease manifestations in Alaskan Eskimo populations. J Rheumatol. 1999, 26 (7): 1537-1544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Roux CH, Saraux A, Le Bihan E, Fardellone P, Guggenbuhl P, Fautrel B: Rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathies: geographical variations in prevalence in France. J Rheumatol. 2007, 34 (1): 117-122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collantes E, Zarco P, Munoz E, Juanola X, Mulero J, Fernandez-Sueiro JL: Disease pattern of spondyloarthropathies in Spain: description of the first national registry (REGISPONSER) extended report. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007, 46 (8): 1309-1315. 10.1093/rheumatology/kem084.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chou CT, Lin KC, Wei JC, Tsai WC, Ho HH, Hwang CM: Study of undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy among first-degree relatives of ankylosing spondylitis probands. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2005, 44 (5): 662-665. 10.1093/rheumatology/keh577.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Khan MA, van der Linden SM, Kushner I, Valkenburg HA, Cats A: Spondylitic disease without radiologic evidence of sacroiliitis in relatives of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis patients. Arthritis Rheum. 1985, 28 (1): 40-43. 10.1002/art.1780280107.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prakash S, Bansal R, Rajagopalan P, Malaviya AN: Immunological studies in seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Br J Rheumatol. 1983, 22 (3): 146-150. 10.1093/rheumatology/22.3.146.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burns TM: Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy. Spondyloarthropathies. Edited by: Calin A. 1984, Grune & Stratton, Orlando, FL, 253-264.Google Scholar
- Amor B, Dougados M, Mijiyawa M: Criteria of the classification of spondylarthropathies. Rev Rheum Mal Osteoartic. 1990, 57 (2): 85-89.Google Scholar
- Dougados M, van der Linden S, Juhlin R, Huitfeldt B, Amor B, Calin A: The European Spondylarthropathy Study Group preliminary criteria for the classification of spondylarthropathy. Arthritis Rheum. 1991, 34 (10): 1218-1227. 10.1002/art.1780341003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R: Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: a global perspective. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2007, 9 (5): 361-366. 10.1007/s11926-007-0058-2.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R, Casasola-Vargas JC: From retrospective analysis of patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (SpA) to analysis of prospective cohorts and detection of axial and peripheral SpA. J Rheumatol. 2010, 37 (6): 1091-1095. 10.3899/jrheum.100413.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mau W, Zeidler H, Mau R: Clinical features and prognosis of patients with possible ankylosing spondylitis. Results of a 10-year followup. J Rheumatol. 1988, 15: 1109-1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar A, Bansal M, Srivastava DN: Long-term outcome of undifferentiated spondylarthropathy. Rheumatol Int. 2001, 20: 221-224. 10.1007/s002960100116.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampaio-Barros PD, Bertolo MB, Kraemer MH: Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies: a 2-year follow-up study. Clin Rheumatol. 2001, 20: 201-206. 10.1007/s100670170066.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sany J, Rosenberg F, Panis G, Serre H: Unclassified HLA-B27 inflammatory rheumatic diseases: followup of 23 patients. Arthritis Rheum. 1980, 23: 258-259. 10.1002/art.1780230223.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schattenkirchner M, Krüger K: Natural course and prognosis of HLA-B27-positive oligoarthritis. Clin Rheumatol. 1987, 6 (Suppl 2): 83-86.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huerta-Sil G, Casasola-Vargas JC, Londoño JD: Low grade radiographic sacroiliitis as prognostic factor in patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis fulfilling diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis throughout follow up. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006, 65: 642-646. 10.1136/ard.2005.043471.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sampaio-Barros PD, Bortoluzzo AB, Conde RA: Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis: a longterm followup. J Rheumatol. 2010, 37 (6): 1195-1199. 10.3899/jrheum.090625.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Collantes E, Veroz R, Escudero A: Can some cases of ‘possible’ spondyloarthropathy be classified as ‘definite’ or ‘undifferentiated’ spondyloarthropathy?Value of criteria for spondyloarthropathies. Spanish Spondyloarthropathy Study Group. Joint Bone Spine. 2000, 67: 516-520. 10.1016/S1297-319X(00)00201-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zeidler H, Mau W, Khan MA: Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1992, 18: 187-202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ansell BM, Bywaters EG: Diagnosis of “probable” Still’s disease and its outcome. Ann Rheum Dis. 1962, 21: 253-262. 10.1136/ard.21.3.253.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schaller JG, Ochs HD, Thomas ED: Histocompatibility antigens in childhood-onset arthritis. Pediatr. 1976, 88: 926-930. 10.1016/S0022-3476(76)81043-8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hussein A, Abdul-Khaliq H, von der Hardt H: A typical spondyloarthritis in children: proposed diagnostic criteria. Eur J Pediatr. 1989, 148 (6): 513-517. 10.1007/BF00441545. ReviewView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jacobs JC, Johnston AD, Berdon WE: HLA-B27 associated spondyloarthritis and enthesopathy in childhood: clinical, pathologic and radiographic observations in 58 patients. J Pediatr. 1982, 100: 521-528. 10.1016/S0022-3476(82)80746-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rosenberg AM, Petty RE: A syndrome of seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy in children. Arthritis Rheum. 1982, 25: 1041-1047. 10.1002/art.1780250902.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hall MA, Burgos-Vargas R, Ansell BM: Sacroiliitis in juvenile chronic arthritis: a 10 year follow-up. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1987, 5 (Suppl): 65-67.Google Scholar
- Sheerin KA, Giannini EH, Brewer EJ: HLA-B27-associated arthropathy in childhood: long-term clinical and diagnostic outcome. Arthritis Rheum. 1988, 31: 1165-1170. 10.1002/art.1780310912.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R, Clark P: Axial involvement in the seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy syndrome and its progression to ankylosing spondylitis. J Rheumatol. 1989, 16: 192-197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cabral DA, Oen KG, Petty RE: SEA syndrome revisited: a long term followup of children with a syndrome of seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy. J Rheumatol. 1992, 19: 1282-1285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olivieri I, Foto M, Ruju GP: Low frequency of axial involvement in Caucasian pediatric patients with seronegative enthesopathy and arthropathy syndrome after 5 years of disease. J Rheumatol. 1992, 19 (3): 469-475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R, Vázquez-Mellado J: The early clinical recognition of juvenile-onset ankylosing spondylitis and its differentiation from juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1995, 38: 835-844. 10.1002/art.1780380618.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flato B, Smerdel A, Johnston V: The influence of patient characteristics, disease variables, and HLA alleles on the development of radiographically evident sacroiliitis in juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2002, 46: 986-994. 10.1002/art.10146.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Poddubnyy D, Rudwaleit M, Haibel H, Listing J, Märker-Hermann E, Zeidler H, Braun J, Sieper J: Rates and predictors of radiographic sacroiliitis progression over 2 years in patients with axial spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011, 70: 1369-1374. 10.1136/ard.2010.145995.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Flatø B, Hoffmann-Vold AM: Long-term outcome and prognostic factors in enthesitis-related arthritis: a case–control study. Arthritis Rheum. 2006, 54 (11): 3573-3582. 10.1002/art.22181.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burgos-Vargas R, Vázquez-Mellado J, Cassis N: Genuine ankylosing spondylitis in children: a case control study of patients with definite disease according to current adultonset criteria shortly after onset. J Rheumatol. 1996, 23: 2140-2147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rudwaleit M, Haibel H, Baraliakos X: The early disease stage in axial spondylarthritis: results from the German Spondyloarthritis Inception Cohort. Arthritis Rheum. 2009, 60: 717-727. 10.1002/art.24483.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Heuft-Dorenbosch L, Landewé R, Weijers R: Performance of various criteria sets in patients with inflammatory back pain of short duration; the Maastricht early spondyloarthritis clinic. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007, 66: 92-98.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bennett AN, McGonagle D, O’Connor P: Severity of baseline magnetic resonance imaging-evident sacroiliitis and HLA-B27 status in early inflammatory back pain predict radiographically evident ankylosing spondylitis at eight years. Arthritis Rheum. 2008, 58 (11): 3413-3418. 10.1002/art.24024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chung HY, Machado P, van der Heijde D: HLA-B27 positive patients differ from HLA-B27 negative patients in clinical presentation and imaging: results from the DESIR cohort of patients with recent onset axial spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011, 70 (11): 1930-1936. 10.1136/ard.2011.152975.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sieper J, Rudwaleit M: How early should ankylosing spondylitis be treated with tumour necrosis factor blockers?. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005, 64 (Suppl 4): iv: 61-iv: 64.Google Scholar
- Brandt HC, Spiller I, Song IH: Performance of referral recommendations in patients with chronic back pain and suspected axial spondyloarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007, 66: 1479-1484. 10.1136/ard.2006.068734.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pedersen SJ, Sørensen IJ, Hermann KG: Responsiveness of the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) and clinical and MRI measures of disease activity in a 1-year follow-up study of patients with axial spondyloarthritis treated with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010, 69 (6): 1065-1071. 10.1136/ard.2009.111187.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Song IH, Hermann K, Haibel H: Effects of etanercept versus sulfasalazine in early axial spondyloarthritis on active inflammatory lesions as detected by whole-body MRI (ESTHER): a 48-week randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011, 70 (4): 590-596. 10.1136/ard.2010.139667.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Song IH, Hermann KG, Haibel H: Relationship between active inflammatory lesions in the spine and sacroiliac joints and new development of chronic lesions on whole-body MRI in early axial spondyloarthritis: results of the ESTHER trial at week 48. Ann Rheum Dis. 2011, 70 (7): 1257-1263. 10.1136/ard.2010.147033.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Prieur AM, Listrat V, Dougados M: Criteres de classification des spondyloarthropathies chez les enfants. [Spondyloarthropathies classification criteria in children]. Arch Franc Ped. 1993, 50: 379-385. [in French]Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.